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the cell wall matrix and reach their target cells. Plant cells are encased by the cell wall, a framework of primarily cellulose/hemicellulose microfibrills ( Cosgrove, 1997 ) of different thickness depending on cell type. The fibrillar nature of the

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this new AFM technique to the point that it enables high-resolution imaging of algae ( Pletikapić et al., 2012 ) and woody plant cell walls ( Ďurkovič et al., 2012 , 2013 ; Ren et al., 2015 ), as well as fibrillar protein aggregates and native

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cell walls. Tissue cylinders (8 mm diameter) were punched using a biopsy punch (Kai Europe, Solingen, Germany) and cut to discs of 2.5 mm height using parallel razor blades. The discs comprised cuticle, epidermis and hypodermis, and the outer mesocarp

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Calcium plays important roles in plant growth and development. Calcium ions are essential for cell wall strength and cell–cell adhesion ( Marry et al., 2006 ; Marschner, 1995 ). Calcium bound to the outer surface of the plasma membrane maintains

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Fruit firmness is determined not only by the changes in cell wall structures ( Dos-Santos et al., 2011 ; Rose et al., 1998 ) but also by the waterproofing ability, which is mainly regulated by the turgor pressure of hypodermal tissues ( Saladié et

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Expansin is a cell wall protein, which is a regulatory factor of cell growth. It plays an important role in plant cell wall extension ( Lee et al., 2001 ; Li et al., 2003 ; McQueen-Mason et al., 1992 ). However, the plant cell wall is a complex

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events that occur in germination of lettuce include activation of enzymes, mobilization of stored reserves and cell wall materials, and a decrease in endosperm weight ( Psaras et al., 1981 ). Cell wall degrading enzymes located in the micropylar region of

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ions, carbohydrates, and organic acids), and changes in cellular/tissue elasticity [i.e., bulk elastic modulus (ɛ)] ( Touchette, 2006 ). Osmotic adjustment and high cell wall elasticity can modify the relationship between turgor pressure and cell volume

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cells around the vascular tissues, but few signals in the pith cells ( Fig. 1B ). The subcellular localization indicated that the IAA signals were mainly detected in the nuclei, cytoplasm, and a few in the cell wall but and few in vacuoles ( Fig. 1C and

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cell wall hydrolytic solution containing 50 m m BTP/MES buffer (pH 5.6), 800 m m sorbitol, 2% Cellulase Onozuka RS (from Trichoderma viride ; SERVA Electrophoresis GmbH, Germany), 1.25% Macerozyme R-10 from Rhizopus sp. (SERVA Electrophoresis GmbH

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