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Peter J. Mes*, James R. Myers and Balz Frei

A nutritional study was initiated to determine which carotenoids found in tomato result in decreased lipid oxidation ex vivo. To compare the carotenoids in a human diet without the use of purified supplements, tomatoes expressing nonfunctional enzymes in the carotenoid pathway were used. Tomato lines carrying the genes t, B, ogc, Del, or r were grown to produce fruit containing with high levels of prolycopene, beta-carotene, lycopene, or delta-carotene respectively, or low total carotenoids in r. Juices were processed from these lines and used in a dietary intervention study. Plasma samples were drawn before and after consumption of each juice. These samples were subjected to a battery of tests to analyze the contribution of carotenoids to the total lipid antioxidant status. Results of these tests are discussed.

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Dean A. Kopsell, David E. Kopsell, Mark G. Lefsrud, Joanne Curran-Celentano and Laura E. Dukach

Green leafy vegetables are important sources of dietary carotenoids, and members of Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala rank highest for reported levels of lutein and β-carotene. Twenty-three leafy B. oleracea cultigens were field grown under similar fertility over two separate years and evaluated for leaf lutein and β-carotene accumulation. Choice of B. oleracea cultigen and year significantly affected carotenoid levels. Lutein concentrations ranged from a high of 13.43 mg per 100 g fresh weight (FW) for B. oleracea var. acephala `Toscano' to a low of 4.84 mg/100 g FW for B. oleracea var. acephala 343-93G1. β-carotene accumulations ranged from a high of 10.00 mg/100 g FW for B. oleracea var. acephala `Toscano' to a low of 3.82 mg/100 g FW for B. oleracea var. acephala 30343-93G1. Carotenoid concentrations were significantly higher in year 2 than in year 1, but rank order among the cultigens for both lutein and ß-carotene did not change between the years. During each year, there were high correlations between leaf carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments. Under similar growing conditions, choice of B. oleracea cultigen will influence carotenoid accumulation, and this may affect the health benefits of consuming these leafy green vegetable crops.

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John M. Ruter and Dewayne L. Ingram

High root-zone temperatures have been shown to affect photosynthate partitioning, respiration, nitrogen nutrition and growth of `Rotundifolia' holly. The loss of chlorophyll and protein in shoots of other plants in response to high root-zone temperatures has been documented. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to look at the effects of supraoptimal root-zone temperatures on RUBISCO activity, leaf protein and photosynthetic pigment levels.

Soluble protein levels in leaves increased linearly as root-zone temperature increased from 30 to 42 C. RUBISCO activity per unit protein and per unit chlorophyll responded quadratically to root-zone temperatures. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a & b, and carotenoid levels decreased linearly with increasing root-zone temperature. It is possible that `Rotundifolia' holly was capable of redistributing nitrogen to maintain RUBISCO activity for photosynthesis.

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Chae Shin Lim, Seong Mo Kang, Jeoung Lai Cho and Kenneth C. Gross

-tocopherol, carotenoids, and flavonoids can quench AOS ( Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1989 ). Reduction of the chilling in resistant plants may be related to their ability to reduce and/or scavenge free radicals through increased enzyme activity as has been reported in pear

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Jennifer L. Waters and Stephen R. King

Carotenoids are important phytochemical components of our diet and have gained recent attention as important nutritive compounds found mainly in fruits and vegetables with red, orange, and yellow hues. Lycopene is often cited as being inversely correlated with the occurrence of various cancers, in lowering rates of cardiovascular disease, and improving other various other immune responses. Antioxidant activity, specifically oxidative radical quenching power, is the putative rationale for carotenoids' involvement in disease risk reduction. It is unlikely, however, that carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity are directly correlated in the whole food since there are other antioxidants present in watermelon, such as various free amino acids. A total measure of antioxidant potential may prove to be a useful tool for measuring watermelon nutritional value and implementing pursuant breeding goals. One assay that has gained recent popularity is the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. ORAC includes two assays that separate lipophylic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Currently, most ORAC protocols use isolated compounds or freeze-dried fruit or vegetable samples. Here, the application of a standard hexane-type extraction method, which is more amenable to whole food carotenoid-containing samples, was investigated as a candidate extraction method for the ORAC assay. Variants of this method as well as of the standard ORAC extraction were compared for extraction efficiency. Finally, ORAC values were correlated with carotenoid content and shown to hold a loose negative correlation. Possible reasons for this are considered and discussed.

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Jane E Lancaster, Jan E. Grant, Carolyn E. Lister and Michael C. Taylor

The biochemical and cytological mechanisms responsible for the differences in red color quality of apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) were investigated. Copigmentation, the increase in absorbance maxima (λ max) from anthocyanin and flavonoid interactions, is known to be a mechanism for producing variation in shade of red in flowers. In intact apple skin cells, the mean λ max was 550 nm, with no significant difference between genotypes. Furthermore, the ratio of flavonols and proanthocyanidins to anthocyanins was similar for all genotypes. Therefore, copigmentation is not a mechanism producing different shades of red in apples. Darkness of red skin was positively related to the proportion of red cells in the skin and the size of the vacuoles containing anthocyanins. Measurements of plastid pigments, chlorophyll, and carotenoids, compared with L*, a*, b* measurements, indicated that the visual blending of plastid pigments and anthocyanins has an important influence on red coloration of apple skin.

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Richard D. Richins, Laura Hernandez, Barry Dungan, Shane Hambly, F. Omar Holguin and Mary A. O'Connell

The red-, orange-, and yellow-pigmented fruit in Capsicum spp. is the result of accumulation of carotenoids, both carotenes and xanthophylls, in the pericarp ( Wall et al., 2001 ). These pigments have beneficial nutritional value as precursors

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Young-Hwan Shin, Rui Yang, Yun-Long Shi, Xu-Min Li, Qiu-Yue Fu, Jian-Liang Lu, Jian-Hui Ye, Kai-Rong Wang, Shi-Cheng Ma, Xin-Qiang Zheng and Yue-Rong Liang

) ( Li et al., 2016d , 2016e ). Table 1. Comparison of foliar chemical compositions between various tea cultivars. z Chlorophylls and carotenoids are important pigments in plants which play a key role in photosynthesis and coloration of leaves. Both

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Beverly Clevidence, Inke Paetau and J. Cecil Smith Jr.

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Marjorie Reyes-Diaz, Miren Alberdi and Maria de la Luz Mora

simultaneous multielement atomic absorption spectrophotometer (model 969; UNICAM, Cambridge, UK) as described by Sadzawka et al. (2004) . Pigment determinations. Total chlorophylls and total carotenoids were measured in extracts of completely expanded