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Richard E. C. Layne

Abstract

‘Harrow Beauty’ is a very attractive, medium-sized, firm-fleshed, cold hardy, freestone peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] that ripens between ‘Canadian Harmony’ and ‘Loring’. It was introduced in 1983 for the Ontario fresh market as a possible replacement for ‘Loring’ which is marginally adapted to all but the best peach sites in Ontario. The tree is of medium vigor, cold hardy, productive, and appears to have moderate field tolerance to perennial canker (Leucostoma spp.). The fruit seem resistant to bacterial spot [Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Young et at.], brown rot [Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey], split pits, preharvest drop, and flesh oxidation. The fruit are well suited for the fresh market including local sales and shipping. ‘Harrow Beauty’ is performing well in regional trials in Ontario and is adapted to regions where ‘Redhaven’ is successfully grown.

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Richard E. C. Layne

Abstract

‘Harlayne’ is an exceptionally cold-hardy, productive, late season apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) suitable for the fresh market and for processing. The trees are vigorous, hardy, productive, and tolerant to perennial canker (Leucostoma spp.). The fruits are resistant to bacterial spot (Xanthomonas pruni (E. F. Sm.) Dows.) and brown rot (Monilinia fructicola [Wint.] Honey) but moderately susceptible to skin cracking if subject to heavy rains near harvest maturity. ‘Harlayne’ ripens 8 days after ‘Veecot’ and 4 days after ‘Harogem’ in the late season. It is a good dual purpose type being well-suited for the fresh market, home canning and appears suitable for commercial processing. The fruits will keep for about a week at room temperature and 2 to 3 weeks in a refrigerated storage. ‘Harlayne’ will extend the apricot season in Southwestern Ontario by about one week.

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Nader Soltani, George Lazarovits, and Arran Brown

Hungavit® products contain extracts of earthworm castings and are marketed by BioLife Ltd. as liquid Bio-leaf fertilizer and plant conditioner. Three experimental plots were set up on the AAFC-SCPFRC research farm to evaluate Hungavit®UR, Hungavit®P, and a preparation containing the equivalent amount of N, P, K fertilizer. In Spring 1998, four replicate plots/treatment of tomato, pepper, and potato were set up in a randomized block design. Each plot received the following treatments: untreated control, Hungavit®UR for tomato and pepper or Hungavit®P for potato, and the fertilizer equivalent of Hungavit®UR or P without the organic components. Tomato and pepper plants were treated three times by foliar application at the rate of 5 L/ha using 300 L of water/ha carrier. Leaf chlorophyll contents were measured at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after initial treatment application. Early and total yield were determined. Tomato fruit were evaluated for symptoms of bacterial spot, early blight, anthracnose, and blossom end rot; pepper fruit for bacterial spot; and potato tubers for potato scab. Both Hungavit® and its equivalent fertilizer application increased the chlorophyll readings significantly in at least one measurement for tomato, pepper, and potato plants. Although there were 40% to 55% fewer diseased tomato and pepper fruit in fertilizer and Hungavit® UR treatments, this was not statistically significant from the control treatments. Fertilizer treatment also reduced scab incidence in tubers by 50%, but the overall scab level was very low even in untreated plots. Hungavit® and its fertilizer equivalent had no significant effect on the early or total yield of tomato, pepper, or potato plants.

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James H. Aldrich and Jeffrey G. Norcini

The effect of four PGRs on production of `Barbara Karst' bougainvillea [Bougainvillea × buttiana (Bougainvillea glabra Choicy × Bougainvillea peruviana Humb. & Bonpl.) was determined. Liners were transplanted into 3.8-L containers with a soilless substrate on 6 Apr. 1995 and were pruned on 15 May (mean height and width 23.6 and 34.5 cm, respectively). Uniconazole (10 ppm), maleic hydrazide (2808 ppm), daminozide (5000 ppm), and paclobutrazol (50, 100, or 200 ppm) were applied as a foliar spray (to wet) by a compressed air backpack sprayer on 16 May (0 weeks after treatment [WAT]). Daminozide (5000 ppm) was reapplied 31 May and 13 June as described above. Soil drenches of 5, 10, or 20 ppm paclobutrazol were additional treatments. Two nonPGR-treated controls were included: pruned at 0 WAT, and pruned at 0 and 4 WAT. There were eight replications per treatment placed in a randomized complete block design on a container bed under full sun and drip irrigation. At 6, 9, and 12 WAT, growth, flowering, growth habit, number of structural branches (>15 cm long), and level of bacterial spot infection by Pseudomonas andropogonis were recorded. Marketability was recorded 12 WAT and phytotoxicity noted 1, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 WAT. No PGR treatment effectively suppressed growth, or enhanced quality or marketability of `Barbara Karst' bougainvillea grown in 3.8-L containers. Furthermore, daminozide reduced the number of structural branches and maleic hydrazide was phytotoxic.

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Richard E. C. Layne

Abstract

‘Harson’ is an attractive, high-quality, yellow-fleshed, freestone peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] that ripens in the midseason 2 days before ‘Redhaven’. It was introduced in 1982 for the Ontario fresh market to advance the season of ‘Redhaven’-type peaches by 2 days and reduce the gap in harvest sequence between ‘Sunhaven’ and ‘Redhaven’. The tree is of medium vigor, cold hardy, productive, and appears to have moderate field tolerance to perennial canker (Leucostoma spp.). The fruit appear to be resistant to bacterial spot [Xanthomonas pruni (E. F. Sm.) Dows.], brown rot [Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey], split pits, preharvest drop, and flesh oxidation. They are wellsuited for the fresh market, including local sales and shipping, and for preservation at home, especially as canned halves and frozen slices. Research and grower cooperators in southern Ontario and near Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia report that ‘Harson’ is performing well in their trials compared with other midseason cultivars and encouraged its introduction. This new cultivar is likely to be adapted to most regions where ‘Redhaven’ is grown successfully. The name ‘Harson’ honors T.B. Harrison for his many years of service to the Western Ontario Fruit Testing Association and the fruit industry of Ontario.

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Ellen M. Bauske, Geoffrey M. Zehnder, Edward J. Sikora, and Joseph Kemble

Multidisciplinary integrated pest management (IPM) teams from seven states in the southeastern United States (Alabama, North Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee) met to develop standards for adopting IPM in fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) production. Teams were composed of growers, private consultants, extension personnel, and faculty. IPM practices available for use on tomatoes in the southeastern United States were identified and a survey to assess the current level of adoption of IPM practices was developed. The survey also allowed growers to identify insect, disease, and production problems; beneficial technology and research developments; and other information relevant to IPM adoption. In northern Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and South Carolina, IPM adoption by tomato growers was classified as medium or high on >75% of the fresh-market tomato acreage surveyed. It appears these states may have met the federal mandate for IPM adoption. Tomato producers listed early blight, late blight, bacterial spot, bacterial speck, and bacterial wilt as the main disease problems; tomato fruit worm, thrips, and aphids as the primary insect problems; and poor weather conditions, government regulation, and labor as their primary production problems. Twenty-six percent of the producers throughout the region felt that the development of insect- and disease-resistant varieties would be most helpful to increase production.

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Peter J. Stoffella and Donald N. Maynard

Abstract

The effects of replanting stand-deficient plots on marketable tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit size and yields were investigated at Bradenton, Fla. during the 1986 spring and fall seasons. Treatments consisted of a control (10-plant plot) and plots with 9, 8, and 7 (10%, 20%, and 30%) missing plants. Other plots with the same stand deficiency were replanted to attain a complete stand 2 or 3 weeks and 1, 2, or 3 weeks after initial transplanting in the spring and fall experiments, respectively. Plots with 30% stand reduction produced a lower weight and number of marketable fruit per hectare than control plots in both seasons. In spring, replanting stand-deficient plots did not increase marketable fruit yields relative to plots not replanted, regardless of the time of replanting or percentage of stand reduction. In fall, under an unfavorable environment due to a late infestation of bacterial spot, replanting plots with 30% stand reduction increased marketable fruit yields over similar plots that were not replanted, when the replanting occurred 1 or 2 weeks after initial transplanting, but not when replanting was delayed 3 weeks. Small, medium, or extra-large marketable fruit weight per hectare were similar in both seasons for plots with 30% stand reduction, whether replanted or not. Mean fruit size (g/fruit) did not differ significantly among treatments in either experiment. These results suggest that replanting improved marketable tomato yields only when the level of stand deficiency reached 30% and only in a stressed environment.

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Richard E. C. Layne

Abstract

‘Harcrest’ is a cold hardy, productive, attractive, firm-fleshed freestone peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] that ripens 2-3 days after ‘Cresthaven’ and ‘Redskin’ in the late season. It was introduced in 1983 for the Ontario fresh market to extend the ‘Cresthaven’ and ‘Redskin’ season with a similar type of peach and is considered a potential replacement for ‘Redskin’. The tree is vigorous and appears to have moderate field tolerance to perennial canker (Leucostoma spp.). Leaves and fruit are moderately resistant to bacterial spot [Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Young et al.] while flowers and fruit are resistant to brown rot [Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey]. Fruit are resistant to split pits but subject to preharvest drop if hot, dry conditions prevail just before harvest. The yellow flesh does not brown readily on exposure to air. ‘Harcrest’ is well suited for the fresh market including local sales and shipping and is suitable for preservation at home by canning or freezing. ‘Harcrest’ is performing well in regional trials in Ontario, and is adapted to regions where ‘Redhaven’ is successfully grown.

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B.L. Topp, W.B. Sherman, R.E. Stall, G.V. Minsavage, and C.J. Wilcox

Four greenhouse leaf inoculation methods for screening Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L. and hybrids) for resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Dye were compared for repeatability, ability to differentiate among plant genotype responses, and correlations with field ratings. Clonally propagated trees were inoculated artificially in a greenhouse by immersing leaves in 2.5 × 108 cfu/ml inoculum (DIP), rubbing the adaxial side of leaves with a slurry of 2.5 × 108 cfu/ml inoculum and Carborundum powder (CARB), infiltrating leaves with 5 × 105 cfu/ml inoculum using a needle-less syringe (INFS), and infiltrating with 5 × 106 cfu/ml inoculum (INF6). No greenhouse method was superior in all assessment categories. The CARB method was most repeatable (t = 0.78) but had a low Spearman's correlation (rs = 0.29), indicating that greenhouse rankings did not correspond closely with field rankings. The INF6 method was unsuitable because it did not differentiate between plant genotypes. The DIP method appeared most suitable, having moderate repeatability (t = 0.46) for four observations per leaf and moderate Spearman's correlation with field performance (rs = 0.56). The INF5 method may be appropriate for identifying bacterial spot resistance that is associated with resistance in the leaf mesophyll.

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E. Fava, D. Janik, C. Madramootoo, and K.A. Stewart

Production of red bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L. cv. King Arthur) is relatively new to Quebec, and management techniques need to be further developed in terms of insect and disease control as well as fertigation techniques. The purpose of the experiment was to compare the fertigation of peppers using either the conventional method (weekly fertigation) or fertigation based on the readings of the SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter. The experiment compared the effects of these fertigation treatments, with respect to insects and diseases, on either a silver or black mulch. The study done in 1995, demonstrated that using the chlorophyll meter saved 28 kg N/ha compared to the weekly fertigated plants. However, this decrease did not affect the population of insects or the disease incidence on the plants. The main differences occurred between the black and silver mulch treatments for aphid populations. Plants on silver mulch had significantly lower numbers of aphids than the other treatments. Plants on black mulch also had low aphid population compared to plants grown on bare soil. The relationship between silver mulch and viruses or tarnished plant bug were not as apparent. However, the viral infections and tarnished plant bug populations on the plants tended to be lower than those on most of the black mulch treatments. Sunscald was not influenced by mulch or fertigation treatments. This may be partly attributed to the amount of leaf area. The number of fruit invaded by European corn borer was too low to draw any conclusions. Blossom end rot, sclerotinia, and bacterial spot were not present in the field in the 1995 season. The results from the 1996 season should further elucidate these results.