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exam viewed plants, their positive feelings increased, while fear and anger decreased ( Ulrich, 1979 ). Even brief visual contact with plants, such as urban tree plantings or office parks, might be valuable in restoration from mild daily stress. Views

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Europe, the second smallest of the world's continents with a total area of 106 km2 and a population of about 700 million, is one of the most densely populated continents with about 80% of its population living in or adjacent to metropolitan centers. These centers are located from Gibraltar in the south (lat. 36°N) to Norway in the north (≈lat. 71°N), and from the Ural mountain range in the east (long. 55°E) to Iceland in the west, (≈long. 24°W).

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As populations become increasingly urbanized, landscape water conservation becomes more important. Landscape water consumption can increase municipal water use up to 4-fold during the growing season, and account for half the total yearly water use. Landscape water conservation is important in decreasing peak summer water demand to reduce the strain on delivery systems, and to reduce total demand so that development of new sources can be forestalled. Potential water savings from existing landscapes can be estimated by comparing historical usage gleaned from water meter readings to plant water needs estimated from reference evapotranspiration. Estimating water needs for turf is straightforward because of the few species involved and the uniformity of turf landscapes. Estimating water needs of woody plants is more difficult because of the heterogeneity of woody plants and how they are used, and woody plants respond to evaporative demand differently than turfgrass. Many woody plants will actually use less water as reference evapotranspiration increases due to stomatal closure induced by high leaf-air vapor pressure gradients. Landscape water is then conserved by either applying water more effectively in scheduling when and how long to irrigate based on estimating water use again from reference evapotranspiration, or by replacing areas in turfgrass with plants more-adapted to the existing conditions. Encouraging water conservation by end users is the final and largest challenge. Automated irrigation systems makes wasting water easy, while conserving water takes more effort. Education is the key to successful landscape water conservation.

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Rose plants (Rosa hybrids cv. Sonia) were grown in rockwool in two heated greenhouses: one with relative humidity (RH) control (RH >70%) provided by high-pressure mist, the other protected against overheating using a movable screen without RH control. Two electrical conductivity (EC) rates were applied: high (EC of drainage water ≈ 3.8 mS·cm-1) and low (EC of drainage water ≈1.8 mS·cm-1). Under these conditions, water deficit in plants was due mainly to climate, and not to EC. The relative water content of sample leaves picked at noon (RWCnoon) was one to two percentage points higher in the greenhouse with RH control and dropped by 6% to 7% in summer. RWCnoon was unaffected by differences in EC. The average elastic modulus (E) and the relative water content threshold for turgor loss (RWC0) were reduced in the greenhouse with RH control. ϵ was increased in the high EC treatment, but RWC0 remained unaffected.

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Many segments of private industry use data gathered from public attitude and opinion research as an integral part of the planning, program development, and evaluation process. These basic techniques were used to determine public perception of five species of Texas native plants grown at three irrigation rates under xeriscape conditions. Nearly half of the average annual residential water costs go to lawns and gardens. Minimizing the amount of water used in irrigation could provide significant savings of money and a precious natural resource. The complexities of measuring social attitudes, how to develop a valid survey instrument, methods of analyzing survey data, and appropriate interpretation will be discussed. Use of public perception could be a powerful tool in developing water conserving technologies.

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Thousands of property owners annually attempt to develop a natural landscape on their property. Annually, thousands of people are cited for violation of “weed laws,” nuisance laws, subdivision covenants, and other local ordinances. Often, these regulations allow the city to mow the “weeds” first and follow up with fines, bills, and other legal actions. How reasonable are these requirements? What is the basis of the regulations? How do they vary by state and locality? Is every property required to have a smooth, unbroken bluegrass lawn? A variety of case studies across the midwest shows much local variation in both the wording of the ordinances and local tolerance for diversity of landscaping goals. The most successful responses require considerable planning and effort, and the least successful attempts are simplistic “no more mowing” declarations.

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Water gardening is fast becoming an integral part of many South Florida landscapes. Due to this growing trend, many professional pond construction and maintenance companies are prospering. However, most people lack the knowledge, finances, or space to build a large show pond. In areas where space is an issue, homeowners may find that a smaller container water feature may be a suitable replacement for the more traditional display pond. Ponds come in a wide variety of styles, shapes, materials, and sizes, so one is only limited by their imagination and budget. Since proper planning is critical to the long term success of any pond, a prospective pond owner should seek the expertise of professional pond company or their county extension agent. Due to South Florida's subtropical climate, a unique variety of plants and fishes are available to the water gardener, which allow for the garden to be enjoyed year-round.

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Since 1905, the United State Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service has been manager of the nation’s forests and wilderness resources — 187 million acres (75.7 million ha) in national forests and grasslands. Except where excluded by law, these lands are managed for multiple products like recreation, wildlife, range, timber, and water. The Forest Service also cooperates with state forestry organizations to organize technical and financial assistance programs that improve forest management on 1.4 billion acres (0.57 billion ha) of private and non-Federal public forest and rangelands throughout the country.

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This computer program, delivered-on a CD-ROM disc, develops a list of tree species and cultivars suited for a specific planting site. It requires little previous computer experience or tree knowledge to operate. Using multiple choice questions, the program automatically brings the user through above ground and below ground site analysis. This includes all the considerations known to influence proper species section for a planting site. Using C++ programming and the NASA-developed expert system shell called CUPS, a list of facts is generated as the user answers the questions. At the press of a button, the program finds trees that match the attributes the expert system placed on the facts list. The list can be further modified by choosing among ornamental and other tree attributes that might be of interest to the user. The tree list can be printed in several seconds. A typical run through the expert system takes 2 to 4 minutes to answer about 20 to 25 questions. The program contains data on 681 trees, more than 1,800 color photographs, and a 4-page fact sheet including 3 line drawings for each tree totaling more than 2,000 pages. The program can also be used as a reference by paging through the tree records to find information about specific trees. Each tree record lists on the computer monitor a large variety of data for the tree, allows you to view text about the tree, displays a line drawing of the entire tree, and displays up to seven photographs of each tree. The program will be distributed nationwide as a tool to help landscape architects, horticulturists and others select the right tree for the right place.

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A geographic information system (GIS) was used to create an interface to evaluate the relationship between the amount of greenness and the crime level within the city of Austin, Texas. Results indicated a statistically significant negative correlation between the incidence of crime committed in the Austin greater metropolitan area for the year 1995 and the amount of vegetation within the area in which those crimes occurred. Areas with less than the average mean greenness level in Austin had an increased amount of crime. Results indicated no statistically significant relationship between the level of greenness of the crime sites and the severity of the crimes committed, and income level appeared to have no statistically significant effect on the severity of crimes committed.

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