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nd Ed Sinauer Sunderland, MA Kang, M. 1997 Using genotype-by-environment interaction for crop cultivar development Adv. Agron. 62 199 252 Lande, R. 1980 Sexual dimorphism, sexual selection, and adaptation in polygenic characters Evolution 34 292 305

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et al., 1985 ). Each spikelet on the raceme is ≈2 mm long and arranged in two alternating rows ( Bogdan, 1977 ). Genetic variations of turf quality and morphological traits including some reproduction-related characteristics have been recently

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Sphaeria was used by early mycologists for fungi that produced pycnidia (asexual fruiting bodies) or perithecia (sexual fruiting bodies) ( Kirk et al., 2008 ). Saccardo assumed that Fries found pycnidia, because he used this species epithet as the basis

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able to pollinate and be pollinated by other sexually compatible cultivars. As a result of the demand for late-season mandarins by international markets, several mid- and late-maturing mandarin hybrids were introduced in Spanish citriculture. These

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)]. Asexually propagated plants are covered by plant patents, but sexually propagated crops are covered by PVPCs. An example of a cultivar protected by a PVPC is Capsicum annum L. ‘Black Pearl’ pepper ( Stommel and Griesbach, 2005 ); an example of a cultivar

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hybridization of Michelia . Literature Cited Boavida, L.C. Vieira, A.M. Becker, J.D. Feijo, J.A. 2005 Gametophyte interaction and sexual reproduction: How plants make a zygote Intl. J. Dev. Biol. 49 615 632 Chen, D. Zhao, J. 2005 Suitable cryo

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plants HortTechnology 28 1 5 10.2307/1220524 Mahoney, J.D. Hau, T.M. Connolly, B.A. Brand, M.H. 2019 Sexual and apomictic seed reproduction in Aronia species with different ploidy levels HortScience 54 642 646 10.21273/HORTSCI13772-18 Mansouri, H

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-breaking isolates) is one method of streamlining the identification of possible new races. Such isolates may result from the migration of a previously characterized race to a new region or may represent a new race that may have occurred through sexual reproduction

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genetically polymorphic ( Burgher et al., 2002 ; Hokanson and Hancock, 1998 ) and shows greatly varying yields among individual plants. The causes of these differences are unknown. Individual plants reproduce sexually on a 2-year cropping cycle in managed

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pollinator dependent for sexual reproduction. In addition, this species has specific conditions for growing because the plant is a geophyte and has reserve organs, where gems are found and where food is stored, that allow these plants to survive in adverse

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