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Thomas E. Marler, April Cascasan and John H. Lawrence

homogenized batch. Our preliminary research indicated that seed scarification was not required to improve germination, but imbibing seeds and changing the water periodically for 12 h improved germination. The experiment was initiated on 10 Feb. 2010 with 12 h

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Orville C. Baldos, Joseph DeFrank, Matthew Kramer and Glenn S. Sakamoto

dormancy. Freshly harvested seeds do not germinate or have very low (less than 10%) germination. To relieve tanglehead seed dormancy, seeds can be scarified, treated with germination stimulants, or dry after-ripened. Scarification has been reported to

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that 2 minutes of exposure to boiling water followed by 60 days of cold-moist stratification at 4 °C resulted in a germination percentage of 48%. Scarification with 98% sulfuric acid followed by 60 days of cold-moist stratification also resulted in

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Pan-Hui Huang, Wen-Bin Yu, Jun-Bo Yang, Hong Wang and Lu Lu

.R. Guan, K.Y. Probert, R.J. 2007 Effects of light, scarification, and gibberellic acid on seed germination of eight Pedicularis species from Yunnan, China HortScience 42 1259 1262 Li, H.L. 1948 A revision

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Dennis J. Werner and Layne K. Snelling

isolation from other redbuds at the Sandhills Research Station, Jackson Springs, NC. F 2 seeds were harvested Fall 2005. Dried seeds were scarified with hot water (≈82 °C) and germinated in a greenhouse in Raleigh, NC. Purple leaf seedlings were identified

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Michael Dossett and Chad E. Finn

arrival, seeds were extracted from the fruit, dried, and stored in a cool dry place until scarification. Seed was also obtained from eight populations held at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, OR. Seeds were scarified in concentrated

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Michael W. Olszewski and Grant J. Folin

stand establishment ( USDA-NRCS, 1996 ). Dormancy of purpletop is at least partly the result of seed-covering structures because their removal decreases time to germination, although mechanical scarification did not increase germination percentage or

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez and Mengmeng Gu

-Safe Organics, Gladewater, TX) and 1 kg·m −3 Micromax (Scotts, Marysville, OH). Mexican redbud seeds were scarified on 29 Nov. 2006 with concentrated sulfuric acid for 30 min followed by cold treatment at 4 °C for 2 months before germination. The same

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Jenjira Chumpookam, Huey-Ling Lin and Ching-Chang Shiesh

irrigation ( De Lange and Boucher, 1993 ). Light et al. (2009) reported that smoke from burning plant material stimulated seed germination of numerous species worldwide. Thus, smoke-water may be acting on the seedcoat in a way similar to scarification, by

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Anderson Machado de Mello, Nereu Augusto Streck, Erin E. Blankenship and Ellen T. Paparozzi

recommend treatments with GA 3 to remove seed dormancy or shorten the chilling requirement for many, but not all, species of Penstemon and recommended the use of gibberellins together with other treatments such as stratification or scarification to