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alleviate symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis ( Mittman, 1990 ) and arthritic rheumatism ( Randall et al., 2000 ). Stinging nettle prefers rich organic soils and is commonly found growing in disturbed sites, e.g., abandoned homesteads, along river

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of 88% sand, 6% silt, and 6% clay, with 0.5% organic matter. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with a factorial arrangement of treatments replicated four times. One treatment factor was herbicides derived from natural products

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plastic containers (6 × 6 × 6 inches) containing two different root-zone mediums. The first root-zone medium was sand with particle size conforming to the U.S. Golf Association (1993) specifications, 0.1% organic matter (OM), and pH of 7.6. The second

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onion is commercially produced. The soil was a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults), composed of 88% sand, 6% silt, and 6% clay, with 0.5% organic matter. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with a

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management, can increase the soil organic matter content and pH, creating an environment conducive to soil microbes, which colonize weed seeds ( Ngouajio and McGiffen, 2002 ). This change in soil properties occurs over time. In 2005, the high tunnels had been

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plastic in plasticulture plots. Because we planted cereal rye in October, as opposed to the preferable September planting date to accommodate soybean harvest and because of the sandy soil at our site that lacks nutrients and organic matter, the cereal rye

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). Nutrient availability often increases under black polyethylene mulch as it prevents leaching and accelerates mineralization of soil organic matter ( Lamont, 1993 ; Steinmetz et al., 2016 ). Plastic mulch has been shown to increase soil moisture in

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mixed effects on sand-based bentgrass greens Ozone is a reactive molecule that oxidizes and degrades organic matter. Sloan and Engelke (p. 148 ) found that ozonated irrigation water temporarily increased aboveground growth and chlorophyll content of

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organic matter (OM) flocculation, which leads to OM loss due to wind erosion and leaching ( Artiola and Walworth, 2009 ; Kida et al., 2017 ; Martinez et al., 2002 ; Wong et al., 2010 ). Salinity not only accelerates the decrease of soil OM but also

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appropriate weed-control strategy in high tunnels for growers who do not wish to use plastic mulch. High tunnels have been shown to slow decomposition of particulate organic matter relative to the open field ( Knewtson et al., 2012 ) and organic matter levels

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