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reasonably narrow range of particle size distributions. Amendment properties Organic amendments. The most common organic amendments are either native peats or composts. Organic matter content is the most important characteristic of an organic amendment and is

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., 2005 ) or glucose ( Mondini et al., 2006 )]. This new energy source enhances microbial growth and humification of soil organic matter, which in turn improves the mineral- and water-holding capacity of soil. This process is recognized in the literature

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releases available N over the tree roots ( Marsh et al., 1996 ). This may be particularly attractive for organic producers who do not have access to low-cost organic nitrogen sources ( Mullinix and Granatstein, 2011 ) as legume nitrogen is normally the

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friable, moist loam soil with high organic matter content like those found along the Mississippi River Bottoms area of Illinois ( Swiader et al., 1992 ). Horseradish that is grown on soils with shallow, hard subsoils will often produce low biomass roots of

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increase organic C and N concentrations in the soil by increasing input of organic matter to the soil ( Hargrove, 1986 ; Kuo et al., 1997a ; Sainju et al., 2000 ). Legume cover crops such as HV can supply N to succeeding crops and increase crop yields

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minimize habitat for rodent pests. In organic orchards, this is commonly achieved by cultivation, which can degrade soil health and organic matter, damage roots, and compromise future tree performance ( Granatstein et al., in press ; Merwin and Stiles

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) production leading to higher bicarbonate formation and ultimately Fe fixation. Soluble organic complexes from organic matter such as cover crops, compost, or animal manure application react with Fe in the soil solution, creating natural chelates resulting in

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nutrients and soil organic matter and, in the case of alkaline-stabilized materials, liming agents ( David et al., 2010 ; Zhang et al., 2007 ). Proper application of biosolids cannot only improve soil physical properties ( Cogger, 2005 ), but also enhance

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Cover crops can provide many agronomic services when included in a crop rotation. In general, they may be used to build soil organic matter, feed the soil food web, control soil erosion, capture and prevent nitrate (NO 3 ) leaching, provide a

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product ( Illera-Vives et al., 2015 ; Sembera et al., 2018 ). Composting is the natural process of breaking down organic matter into a usable, waste-free product, and it is increasingly used as a waste management system ( Sanders et al., 2011 ). Compost

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