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, peatmoss, and sand (4:2:1), with low recommended rates of controlled-release fertilizer. From a rooted cutting, salable trade no. 1 container plants may be produced in 1 year, and salable trade no. 3 plants in 2 years. ‘Lowboy’ is low maintenance and

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Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Botrytis group `Green Duke') seeds were cultured photoautotrophically (without sugar) or photomixotrophically (with sugar) in vitro for 3 weeks at 23 °C and150 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). In vitro seedlings were stored for 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks at 5 °C in darkness or under 5 μmol·m-2·s-1 of white (400–800 nm), blue (400–500 nm), or red (600–700 nm) light. Photosynthetic ability and soluble sugar contents were determined after removal from storage. Photomixotrophic seedlings contained approximately five times more soluble sugars than did photoautotrophic seedlings. Dark storage reduced soluble sugars in both photoautotrophic and photomixotrophic plants, but photosynthetic ability was maintained for up to 8 weeks in the latter whereas it decreased in the former. Illumination in storage increased leaf soluble sgars in both photoautotrophic and photomixotrophic seedlings. Soluble sugars in stems decreased during storage regardless of illumination, but remained higher in illuminated seedlings. Red light was more effective in increasing or maintaining leaf and stem soluble sugars than was white or blue light. Regardless of media composition or illumination, storage for more tan 8 weeks resulted in dramatic losses in quality and recovery, as well as photosynthetic ability. Seedlings stored for 12 weeks comletely lost their photosynthetic ability regardless of media composition or illumination. The results suggest that carbohydrate, supplied in the media or through illumination, is essential for maintenance of photosynthetic ability during low-temperature storage for up to 4 or 8 weeks.

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Oral Session 32—Ornamental/Landscape/Turf/Plant Breeding/Management 30 July 2006, 2:00–3:15 p.m. Oak Alley Moderator: Timothy Rinehart

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University of Nevada Cooperative Extension (UNCE) faculty members have taught horticulture to inmates of correctional facilities for over 8 years. The training material used was the Master Gardener curriculum. Because inmates in Nevada have few opportunities to meet requirements for certification as Master Gardeners, this program was described simply as a horticulture class. Over the past 3 years, we have redirected it toward job readiness to assist inmates after release. The curriculum was first expanded to do intensive teaching on such topics as irrigation, landscape plant selection and maintenance, and problem solving. Even with these changes, horticulture jobs generally limited to low-paying, entry level ones. To improve employment opportunities, UNCE obtained the involvement of the Nevada Department of Agriculture. After inmates have passed the horticulture program, they may take the state pesticide applicator training and examination. This year, a mini course in “Developing a Business Model” will be added to the initial curriculum. To date, 36 inmates have received PAT certification. Conversations with potential employers indicate that this significantly enhances their likelihood of employment at a higher-than-entry level.

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We thank Frank Corley and Dale Greene for assistance in obtaining plant materials and Chuck Moore for his photography. This work was supported by McIntire-Stennis funds allocated to the D.B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, Univ. of

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Abbreviations: ET c , crop evapotranspiration; DOY, day of year; K c , crop coefficient; LWP, leaf water potential; RWC, leaf relative water content; VPD, air vapor pressure deficit. 1 Plant Physiologist. 2 Agronomist. 3 Agricultural Engineer. 4

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In a survey of 42 recent graduates of the Penn State Department of Horticulture's Landscape Contracting major, 29 respondents indicated their present employment, salary range, and the type of work in which they were involved. 25 were employed by landscape contracting firms, 1 by an irrigation design firm, and 3 were attending graduate school. Salaries ranged from a low of $12,000 to $15,000, to a high of $30,000 to $35,000, with average just below $20,000. 19 were involved in landscape installation, while 14 were doing landscape design and 14 maintenance. Work in pest control and irrigation were each identified by 6 respondents. The survey requested identification of four areas important to their employment that were not adequately addressed in the curriculum. Equipment handling and repair and pest control received the greatest response. Also requested was identification of four aspects of the curriculum that were most useful to them in their employment. Design, plant identification, and construction practices received the greatest responses in this category.

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A split-plot experimental design was imposed in the year of planting and maintained for the first five growing seasons in a high density apple orchard on M.9 rootstock planted at 1.5 m (within row) × 4 m (between row) in a loamy sand soil susceptible to K deficiency when drip-irrigated. Four N-K fertigation treatments involving low (N1) and high (N2) rates of N combined with 0 (K0) or 15 g K/tree per year (K1) were applied in five replicated and randomized main plot units. Subplots consisted of three-tree plots of each of the apple cultivars Gala, Fuji, Fiesta and Spartan. Soil solution monitoring indicated the maintenance of distinctly different soil solution N and K concentrations in the respective N-K treatments during the study. The most important plant response was prevention of the development of K deficiency by the K1-fertigation treatment. Fertigation of 15 g K/tree generally increased leaf K, fruit K and Mg concentrations, fruit size and yield and fruit titratable acidity and red coloration at harvest for all cultivars. K fertigation also decreased leaf Mg and B concentrations, fruit N, P and Ca concentration and fruit firmness. In addition to leaf K concentrations <1%, K deficiency was associated with fruit K concentrations <100 mg/100 g fresh weight and soil solution K concentration <5 mg·L-1. Increasing the rate of fertigated N when growth was constrained by K deficiency increased leaf N and Mn and decreased leaf P and B, but had no effect on tree vigor or fruit production and quality.

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associated with high rhizome glucose and proline concentrations and low water percentage on three or more sampling dates in 2012. Table 2. Pearson correlation coefficients between LT 50 , the temperature at which 50% of plants die, and biochemical and

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, heritability and progeny testing in meadow bromegrass Plant Breed. 121 417 424 Dernoeden, P.D. Carroll, M.J. Krouse, J.M. 1994 Mowing of three fescue species for low-maintenance turf sites Crop Sci. 34 1645 1649 Diesburg, K.L. Christians, N.E. Moore, R. Branham

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