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Allen V. Barker and Randall G. Prostak

treatments. Plots were 4 ft wide by 20 ft long under guardrails along the highway. Table 3. Material, product name, concentrations of formulations, and rates of application of alternative and conventional herbicides applied to roadside vegetation under

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Silvia Jiménez Becker, Blanca María Plaza and María Teresa Lao

find a clear tendency in the Gerbera crop. This difference in behavior should be considered in the nutritive solution formulation. To maintain the recycled solution as much as possible, a concentration of potassium of 4 mmol·L −1 in winter is adequate

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James S. Gerik

Field trials were conducted to test fumigants as alternatives to methyl bromide (MB) for production of hybrid freesia (Freesia × hybrida). One trial compared rates of 1,3-dichloropropene (DP) combined with chloropicrin (CP); the second trial compared iodomethane (IM) together with CP, DP:CP, and furfural with and without metham sodium; and the third trial compared rates and formulations of IM:CP to the standard MB:CP treatments. Most treatments reduced populations of Pythium spp. and controlled weeds compared to the untreated controls. Formulations of IM:CP reduced the incidence of disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. Treatments of IM:CP performed as well as MB:CP, and treatments of DP:CP performed as well as IM:CP. Presently only the DP, CP and metham sodium formulations are registered for use on ornamental crops. Registration of the IM formulations will improve the options available to cut flower growers for management of plant pathogens and weeds.

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Xiaoming Wang, Jianjun Chen, Yongxin Li, Qiying Nie and Junbin Li

formulation. To minimize the potential of somaclonal variation, only those calluses that were initially induced from leaf explants 4 weeks after culture were used for adventitious shoot induction. Shoot induction. The calluses were cut into 1-cm 3 pieces

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Deniz İnci, Liberty Galvin, Kassim Al-Khatib and Ahmet Uludağ

.e./ha ( Table 2 ). Each population was separately treated with two formulations of glyphosate either isopropyl amine salt or potassium salt. Treatments were applied with a motorized backpack sprayer (SP126; Oleo-Mac Inc., Piano, Italy), calibrated to deliver 250

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Adrian D. Berry, Steven A. Sargent, Marcio Eduardo Canto Pereira and Donald J. Huber

Guatemalan type cultivar ( Adkins et al., 2005 ; Woolf et al., 2005 ). Gaseous 1-MCP is commercially applied to fruit held in sealed containers or rooms over periods up to 24 h; however, an aqueous formulation of 1-MCP available for preharvest application

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Robert H. Stamps and Daniel W. McColley

Established ground beds of leatherleaf fern were sprayed repeatedly with water, a flowable formulation of thiophanate-methyl, or one of four formulations of chlorothalonil on a predominantly weekly schedule. None of the treatments produced visible phytotoxicity symptoms or had any effect on yield (frond number and total fresh mass). However, average masses of fronds from plots treated with a liquid formulation of chlorothalonil were 21% greater than those from control plots. All chlorothalonil formulations left visible residues on the fronds and reduced frond vase life compared to fronds treated with water or thiophanate-methyl. Reduced vase life was due to more rapid desiccation of chlorothalonil-treated fronds. During those months (July—Sept.) when postharvest desiccation is most common, chlorothalonil reduced vase life of fronds by 36% to 62%. Vase life of fronds was generally reduced more by dry chlorothalonil formulations than by liquid ones, probably due to slightly higher application rates of dry formulations. Determination of the mode of action could lead to an understanding of the causes of frond curl syndrome. Until a remedy is found, chlorothalonil should not be used repeatedly on leatherleaf fern. Chemical names used: tetrachlorisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil); dimethyl [(1,2-phenylene)-bis(iminocarbonothioyl)]bis[carbamate]) (thiophanate-methyl).

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Andreas Westphal, Nicole L. Snyder, Lijuan Xing and James J. Camberato

-Modeste, Quebec, Canada) was used. Half of each tray was planted to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ and the other half was planted to onion ‘White Lisbon’. Onion was included as a positive control for colonization potential of the commercial formulations because of its

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Paul V. Nelson, Cheon-Young Song, Jinsheng Huang, Carl E. Niedziela Jr. and William H. Swallow

%, 93%, and 100% of total N, respectively). We self-formulated the non-commercial fertilizers to avoid unknown proprietary contents and NH 4 + that are present in some calcium nitrate sources. Table 1. Fertilizer formulations applied in Expts. 1 and 2

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Antònia Ninot, Agustí Romero, Joan Tous and Ignasi Batlle

that environmental conditions have over obtaining maximum shaking efficiency with minimum defoliation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) in combination with P formulation compounds as