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et al., 2012 ), but greater than costs for custom applications of synthetic fumigants ( Walters et al., 2011 ). An economic analysis in 2018 determined that the total costs for installing and removing plastic mulch was $2761/acre ( Fonsah and Shealey

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, water retention, reduced erosion, and cycling of other nutrients. An additional consideration for organic producers is weed management ( Walz, 1999 ). Organic producers are limited to cultural practices, mulching with fully biodegradable mulches, mowing

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SP , Marsh TL , Tozer PR , Chouinard HH . 2020 . Willingness to pay for attributes of biodegradable plastic mulches in the agricultural sector . HortTechnology . 30 : 437 – 447 . https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH04518-20 . Coffey AJ

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.3.465 Cowan, S. Miles, C.A. Andrews, P.K. Inglis, D.A. 2014 Biodegradable mulch performed comparably to polyethylene in high tunnel tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) production J. Sci. Food Agric. 94 1854 1864 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6504

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plot with three complete blocks. In the main plot, two soil management regimes were used: bare soil (T) and plastic covers (mulch) (P) with 120-cm wide, 25-μm thick, black biodegradable matter, Mater-Bi® (Novament, Italy). In the subplot, three

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butcher paper had the best combination of yield, weed suppression, biodegradability, and ease of use when put out using a traditional plastic layer and may prove useful for farmers wishing to utilize inexpensive biodegradable mulches. In Vitro Factors

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, D. 2012 Deterioration of potentially biodegradable alternatives to black plastic mulch in three tomato production regions HortScience 47 1270 1277 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.47.9.1270 Rivard, C.L. O’Connell, S. Peet, M.M. Louws

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adapted to early-season culture. However, beginning in the mid-1970s, improved cultural techniques using different plastic mulches and rowcovers provided technologies for extending the growing season and increasing melon yields in northern latitudes

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(SePro, Carmel, Ind.) or copper hydroxide [Cu(OH) 2 ]-treated containers are used in container production to eliminate root circling problems incited by the smooth sidewalls of plastic containers ( Arnold and Struve, 1989b ). The Cu acts as a growth

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. Agr. Social Sci. 5 123 127 10.21273/HORTSCI.47.9.1270 Miles, C. Wallace, R. Wszelaki, A. Martin, J. Cowan, J. Walters, T. Inglis, D. 2012 Deterioration of potentially biodegradable alternatives to black plastic mulch in three tomato production regions

Open Access