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Shuai-Ping Gao, Kang-Di Hu, Lan-Ying Hu, Yan-Hong Li, Yi Han, Hui-Li Wang, Kai Lv, Yong-Sheng Liu and Hua Zhang

Commission 1.6.4.2) was determined by the method described by Knörzer et al. (1996) . Detection of reducing sugars, ascorbate, soluble protein, and free amino acids. Fruit samples (5.00 ± 0.05 g) were ground in 5 mL of phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, 200 mmol·L −1

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Jalil Dejampour, Islam Majidi, Solmaz Khosravi, Sevil Farhadi and Atena Shadmehr

intensity and subsequent 8-h dark condition in a growth chamber at 23 ± 1 °C. They were sub-cultured every 3 weeks. Table 1. Proliferation treatments containing different concentrations of benzyl amino purine (BAP) and indole butyric acid (IBA) for the HS314

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Camilo Escalante-Magaña, Luis F. Aguilar-Caamal, Ileana Echevarría-Machado, Fátima Medina-Lara, Lucila Sánchez Cach and Manuel Martínez-Estévez

inside the cell in high concentrations without causing metabolic harm such as polyols, which include sorbitol, mannitol, arabitol, and glycerol, and amino acids, which include proline (Pro), the quaternary amine glycine betaine (GB

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Muhammad Mansoor Javaid, Manish Bhan, Jodie V. Johnson, Bala Rathinasabapathi and Carlene A. Chase

effectively with weeds ( Collins et al., 2007 , 2008 ), making it especially useful for weed management in organic and sustainable production of row crops. A nonprotein amino acid delta-hydroxynorleucine was identified in sunn hemp seeds ( Pant and Fales

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Li-Qiang Tan, Xin-Yu Wang, Hui Li, Guan-Qun Liu, Yao Zou, Shen-Xiang Chen, Ping-Wu Li and Qian Tang

. Previously, we evaluated the CQPP and GLNP landrace populations using these analyses, and we identified a high level of genetic diversity and many individuals with potential breeding value (such as high amino acid or caffeine content) ( Liu et al., 2014

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Mohsen Hesami and Mohammad Hosein Daneshvar

·L −1 IBA. ( F ) In vitro root formation on MS + 2.0 mg·L −1 IBA + 0.1 mg·L −1 NAA. ( G ) Acclimatized regenerated plants after 8 weeks. BAP = benzyl amino purine; 2,4-D = 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; IBA = indole butyric acid; MS = Murashige and

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Li-Xiao Yao, Yong-Rui He, Hai-Fang Fan, Lan-Zhen Xu, Tian-Gang Lei, Xiu-Ping Zou, Ai-Hong Peng, Qiang Li and Shan-Chun Chen

sequence of citrus was searched through BLASTx against the amino acid sequence of CjFRO1 . Five predicted sequences of C. sinensis (Cs3g01120, Cs9g19350, Cs5g06040, orange1.1t00399, and Cs9g19360) were found. Cs9g19350 corresponds to CjFRO1 , and the

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Guihong Bi*, Carolyn Scagel, Lailiang Cheng and Leslie Fuchigami

June-budded `Nonpareil/Nemaguard' almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb) trees were fertigated with one of five nitrogen (N) concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 mm) in a modified Hoagland's solution from July to September. In October, the trees were sprayed twice with either water or 3% urea, then harvested after natural leaf fall and stored at 2°C. Trees were destructively sampled during winter storage to determine their concentrations of amino acids, protein, and non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). Increasing N supply either via N fertigation during the growing season or with foliar urea applications in the fall increased the concentrations of both free and total amino acids, whereas decreased their C/N ratios. Moreover, as the N supply increased, the proportion of nitrogen stored as free amino acids also increased. However, protein was still the main form of N used for storage. The predominant amino acid in both the free and total amino-acid pools was arginine. Arginin N accounted for an increasing proportion of the total N in both the free and total amino acids as the N supply was increased. However, the proportion of arginine N was higher in the free amino acids than in the total amino acids. A negative relationship was found between total amino acid and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations, suggesting that TNC is increasingly used for N assimilation as the supply of N increases. Urea applications decreased the concentrations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, but had little influence on concentrations of sorbitol and starch. We conclude that protein is the primary form of storage N, and that arginine is the predominant amino acid. Furthermore, the synthesis of amino acids and proteins comes at the expense of non-structural carbohydrates.

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Ed Stover, Richard R. Stange Jr., T. Gregory McCollum, Jesse Jaynes, Michael Irey and Erik Mirkov

Methods Antimicrobial peptides. The AMPs listed in Table 1 include many reported in the literature as occurring naturally in diverse organisms and were custom-synthesized based on reported amino acid sequences: apidaecin, drosocin, histatin-5

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Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou

– 15.28A 665 , and C x (mg/L) = (1000A 470 – 1.63C a – 104.96C b )/221. Reducing power and contents of protein and amino acid. For analyzing nutritional value, leaf samples were soaked in liquid N immediately after harvest and stored at −80 °C. Leaf