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Iron (Fe) deficiency is a frequent nutritional problem in Florida vegetable crops because of leaching of Fe fertilizer from the soil, poor soil aeration, low soil organic matter (SOM), temperature, high soil pH and/or water bicarbonate content, and interactions with high levels of manganese (Mn) and calcium (Ca). Most Fe-deficient plants are yellow and stunted, with symptoms on younger leaves near the top of the plant because of Fe immobility and poor translocation resulting in interveinal chlorosis. Iron deficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is characterized by a drastic reduction of leaf chlorophyll content at first at the base of the leaves (bleached leaf) ending in necrotic spots. Iron deficiency can have a significant economic impact depending on the timing of the deficiency during the crop production cycle. Furthermore, crop genotypic variations influence the ability of root systems to acquire Fe. The objective of this article was to describe current methods used by vegetable growers to correct Fe deficiency and to evaluate their effectiveness in tomato, pepper (Capsicum annuum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and eggplant (Solanum melongena) production in Florida. A survey was conducted in the major vegetable production areas in Florida during 2012. Results from the survey indicated that since Fe availability depends on complex soil and environmental factors, there was no reliable soil test method that can predict Fe deficiency on vegetable crops in Florida. Production areas surveyed with calcareous or alkaline soils that are often due to over-liming, Fe becomes unavailable because of significant reduction of Fe. Production practices for those areas were not to use calcitic lime to raise Ca levels, especially if the pH is adequate (6.5). Instead, gypsum or calcium nitrate was recommended for soil Ca. The survey indicated that Fe sulfate (inorganic form) is the most commonly used Fe fertilizer in Florida. However, chelates of Fe were effective but expensive Fe alternative. Among chelate sources, ferric ethylenediaminediaminedi-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was frequently the preferred chelate fertilizer for soil application, but it is an expensive option. Soil acidification to lower the soil pH was also used to improve soil Fe availability. Organic matter in animal manures and composts was used as an effective alternative to increase Fe with positive results in Florida tomato production. However, the survey indicated that Fe applied to the soil was converted into unavailable forms especially under high soil pH, thus foliar application was used if Fe deficiency symptoms were observed early in the production cycle.

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In the United States, overhead irrigation is common to apply water and dissolved nutrients to vegetable transplants during greenhouse production. Overhead irrigation allows for the control of salt accumulation in the growing medium because excess water can leach salts out of the container. Alternatively, subirrigation saves labor and improves water use efficiency, but soluble salts can accumulate in the upper profile of the containers. Consequently different sets of fertilizer and electrical conductivity (EC) guidelines are required for overhead and subirrigation systems. The objective of this project was to determine the influence of fertilizer concentration and irrigation method (subirrigation vs. overhead irrigation) on the growth of several vegetable transplant crops intended for retail sale. Seedlings of collards (Brassica oleracea var. acephala ‘Vates’), kale (B. oleracea var. acephala ‘Nagoya Mix’), lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Buttercrunch’), pepper (Capsicum annuum ‘Sweet Banana’), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Sweet 100’) were transplanted into 4-inch-diameter containers and grown in a greenhouse for 4 weeks. Irrigation was provided via ebb and flow benches (subirrigation) or hand-watering (overhead irrigation). Plants received a complete fertilizer solution provided at a concentration of 50, 100, 200, 350, and 500 mg·L−1 nitrogen (N). The treatments resulting in maximum shoot dry weight (DW) for overhead irrigated plants were 100 mg·L−1 N for pepper, 200 mg· L−1 N for tomato, and 350 mg·L−1 N for collards, kale, and lettuce. Irrigation method and fertilizer treatment significantly affected fresh weight (FW) and DW for kale, lettuce, and pepper. For kale and lettuce, regression analysis indicated that maximum DW was reached at a lower fertilizer concentration with overhead irrigation than subirrigation. The treatments resulting in maximum DW for subirrigated plants were 200 mg·L−1 N for kale, lettuce, pepper, and tomato and 350 mg·L−1 N for collards. Reducing fertilizer concentration was an effective method for controlling plant height for all crops we examined except for ‘Sweet Banana’ pepper. However, in many cases height control via nutritional limitation comes at substantial expense to other growth parameters. Our results suggest that, in some cases, fertilizer concentration guidelines for overhead irrigation can be reduced when growing vegetable transplants with subirrigation due to reduced leaching of nutrients and greater potential for accumulation of fertilizer salts.

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Pepper (Capsicum annuum) producers would benefit from additional herbicide options that are safe to the crop and provide effective weed control. Research was conducted in southeastern Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) during 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of pelargonic acid on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and pepper yields. The experiment included pelargonic acid applied unshielded postdirected at 5, 10, and 15 lb/acre, plus an untreated weedy control and an untreated weed-free control. ‘Jupiter’ sweet bell pepper, a tobacco mosaic virus-resistant sweet pepper with a 70-day maturity, was transplanted into single rows on 3-ft centered raised beds with 18 inches between plants (9680 plants/acre) on 28 May 2010 and 27 May 2011, respectively. Weeds included smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum), cutleaf groundcherry (Physalis angulata), spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus), and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus). Pelargonic acid was applied postdirected each year in mid-June and then reapplied 8 days later. The 15-lb/acre pelargonic acid treatment resulted in the maximum smooth crabgrass control (56%) and broadleaf weed control (66%) at 1 day after the initial spray treatment (DAIT), and 33% yellow nutsedge control at 3 DAIT. Pelargonic acid at 15 lb/acre provided equal or slightly greater smooth crabgrass and broadleaf (cutleaf groundcherry and spiny amaranth) control compared with the 10-lb/acre application, and consistently greater control than the 5-lb/acre rate and the weedy control. Pelargonic acid was less effective at controlling yellow nutsedge than smooth crabgrass and broadleaf weeds. As the rate of pelargonic acid increased from 5 to 15 lb/acre, yellow nutsedge control also increased significantly for all observation dates. Increasing the pelargonic acid application rate increased the crop injury rating. The maximum crop injury occurred for each application rate at 1 DAIT with 7%, 8.0%, and 13.8% injury for pelargonic acid rates 5, 10, and 15 lb/acre, respectively. There was little or no new crop injury after the second postdirected application of pelargonic acid and crop injury following 3 DAIT for application rates was 2% or less. Only the 15-lb/acre pelargonic acid application produced greater fruit per hectare (4784 fruit/ha) and yields (58.65 kg·ha−1) than the weedy control (1196 fruit/ha and 19.59 kg·ha−1). The weed-free yields (7176 fruit/ha, 178.11 kg·ha−1, and 24.82 g/fruit) were significantly greater than all pelargonic acid treatments and the weedy control. Pelargonic acid provided unsatisfactory weed control for all rates and did not significantly benefit from the sequential applications. The authors suggest the pelargonic acid be applied to smaller weeds to increase the weed control to acceptable levels (>80%).

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Each year a wide variety of new cultivars and species are evaluated in the National Cut Flower Trial Programs administered by North Carolina State University and the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers. Stems of promising and productive cultivars from the National Trial Program were pretreated with either a commercial hydrating solution or deionized (DI) water and placed in either a commercial holding solution or DI water. Over 8 years, the vase life of 121 cultivars representing 47 cut flower genera was determined. Although there was cultivar variation within each genus, patterns of postharvest responses have emerged. The largest category, with 53 cultivars, was one in which a holding preservative increased vase life of the following genera and species: acidanthera (Gladiolus murielae), basil (Ocimum basilicum), bee balm (Monarda hybrid), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hybrids), campanula (Campanula species), celosia (Celosia argentea), common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), coral bells (Heuchera hybrids), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), ladybells (Adenophora hybrid), lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), lobelia (Lobelia hybrids), obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana), ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum), pincushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpurea), pinkflower (Indigofera amblyantha), seven-sons flower (Heptacodium miconioides), shasta daisy (Leucanthemum superbum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), sweet william (Dianthus hybrids), trachelium (Trachelium caeruleum), and zinnia (Zinnia elegans). Hydrating preservatives increased the vase life of four basils, coral bells, and sunflower cultivars. The combined use of hydrator and holding preservatives increased the vase life of three black-eyed susan, seven-sons flower, and sunflower cultivars. Holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 14 cultivars of the following genera and species: ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), false queen anne's lace (Ammi species), knotweed (Persicaria hybrid), lisianthus, pineapple lily (Eucomis comosa), sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and zinnia. Hydrating preservatives reduced the vase life of 18 cultivars of the following genera and species: feverfew, lisianthus, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, seven-sons flower, shasta daisy, sneezeweed, sweet william, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. The combined use of hydrating and holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 12 cultivars in the following genera and species: false queen anne's lace, feverfew, pincushion flower, sneezeweed, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. Data for the remaining 50 cultivars were not significant among the treatments; these genera and species included beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), black-eyed susan, blue mist (Caryopteris clandonensis), calendula (Calendula officinalis), campanula, cleome (Cleome hasserliana), common ninebark, dahlia (Dahlia hybrids), delphinium (Delphinium hybrids), flowering peach (Prunus persica forma versicolor), heliopsis (Heliopsis helianthoides), hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum), himalayan honeysuckle (Leycesteria formosa), hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata), larkspur (Consolida hybrids), lily of the nile (Agapanthus hybrid), lisianthus, lobelia, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, scented geranium (Pelargonium hybrid), sunflower, sweet william, and zinnia.

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harvest Capsicum Eggplant Nwsl. 16 15 27 Marshall, D.E. Boese, B.N. 1998 Breeding Capsicum for mechanical harvest. Proc. 10th Eucarpia Mtg. Genet. Breeding Capsicum Eggplant 10:61–64 Natural Resources Conservation Service 2017 Web soil survey. 20 Oct

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A 2-year field study in Lexington, Ky., evaluated weed control efficacy and influence on yields of several organic mulches in two organically managed bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) production systems. Five weed control treatments [straw, compost, wood chips, undersown white dutch clover (Trifolium repens) “living mulch,” and the organically approved herbicide corn gluten] were applied to two production systems consisting of peppers planted in double rows in either flat, bare ground or on black polyethylene-covered raised beds. In the first year, treatments were applied at transplanting and no treatment was found to provide acceptable season-long weed control. As a result, bell pepper yields in both production systems were very low due to extensive weed competition. First year failures in weed control required a modification of the experimental protocol in the second year such that treatment application was delayed for 6 weeks, during which time three shallow cultivations were used to reduce early weed pressure and extend the control provided by the mulches. This approach increased the average weed control rating provided by the mulches from 45% in 2003 to 86% in 2004, and resulted in greatly improved yields. In both years, polyethylene-covered raised beds produced higher yields than the flat, bare ground system (8310 lb/acre compared to 1012 lb/acre in 2003 and 42,900 lb/acre compared to 29,700 lb/acre in 2004). In the second year, the polyethylene-covered bed system coupled with mulching in-between beds with compost or wood chips provided excellent weed control and yields. When using the wood chip mulch, which was obtained at no cost, net returns were $5587/acre, which is similar to typical returns for conventionally grown peppers in Kentucky. Net returns were substantially decreased when using compost due to the purchase cost. Results from this study indicate that shallow cultivation following transplanting, combined with midseason mulch application, resulted in high yields in an organically managed bell pepper system that were comparable to yields of most varieties grown conventionally in a variety trial conducted on the same farm.

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Encouraging results from previous trials on field vegetables led to the expectation that a kinetin foliar spray from the commercial product KIN-Gro (5000 ppm kinetin) on greenhouse vegetables would positively affect their growth and productivity. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of this product on rockwool-grown `Bodega' cucumber (Cucumis sativus), `Rapsodie' tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), and `4-Ever' and `444' pepper (Capsicum annuum) at the Greenhouse and Processing Crops Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Harrow, Ont. Two replicated experiments were conducted to study the effect of kinetin spray on growth and production of all three crops: the first in Spring-Summer 2004 and the second in Fall-Winter 2004. Foliar sprays of kinetin at 2.5, 5, and 10 ppm concentrations were tested against a water spray (control) on each crop. A 2.5-ppm kinetin spray had beneficial effects on the growth of cucumber transplants (taller plants and greater leaf area and fresh weight of leaves and stems). Furthermore, this treatment resulted in higher marketable yield in the Spring-Summer crop and in larger fruit size in the Fall-Winter crop. Regression analysis showed that cucumber marketable yield had an overall quadratic response to kinetin spray concentration in Spring-Summer season maximizing at 5.1 ppm kinetin. Kinetin spray also had beneficial effects on the growth of tomato seedlings, but not on yield. On the other hand, significant beneficial effects were observed on the growth of pepper seedlings and on marketable yield and fruit quality. Regression analysis showed that the response of pepper marketable yield to kinetin spray concentration was positive and linear. It must be noted that, given the rather short-term nature of our experiments, the observed beneficial effects of the kinetin sprays on yield can only be interpreted as beneficial effects on early yield rather than on the total yield. We concluded that under our growing conditions, cucumber production would benefit from a dilute (2.5 ppm) kinetin spray, and pepper production from a high concentration spray (10 ppm); tomato transplant growth will also benefit from a kinetin spray at 2.5 ppm. The results of this study could be of considerable significance to the greenhouse vegetable industry.

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( Capsicum annuum ) fruit can be male or female, has become so widespread as to reach mainstream news (Lomeli, 2021). Solis-Toapanta et al. (2020 ) found that horticulture misinformation, particularly related to gardening, can be disseminated on social media

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. 2010 ), and bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) in the southeastern United States ( Norsworthy et al. 2007 ). Pest suppression from biofumigation is caused by the enzymatic degradation of chemicals called glucosinolates, which are found in the cover crop

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New Mexico pod-type chile ( Capsicum annuum ) is an important agricultural crop in New Mexico. The total chile production in New Mexico was 53,300 tons in 2022, with a total value of $46 million ( US Department of Agriculture National Agricultural

Open Access