Tissue-culture (TC)-propagated `Gala' and Triple Red `Delicious' apple trees grown at three planting densities were not treated (CON) or treated with plant growth regulators (PGRs) starting the third or fourth season to control tree size and maximize fruiting. `Gala' and `Delicious' trees budded on M.7a rootstock (BUD) were also included as controls. `Gala' trees were larger than `Delicious' after the first three growing seasons but `Delicious' were larger than `Gala' at the end of 9 years. BUD trees were larger than CON trees the first few seasons hut final trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) of CON trees averaged 43% greater than BUD trees. Paclobutrazol and uniconazole treatments more readily controlled the growth of `Gala' than `Delicious' and uniconazole was more effective than paclobutrazol in controlling tree size. Daminozide + ethephon sprays (D+E-S) did not influence tree size. Tree size of both cultivars was inversely related to planting density and both triazole PGRs were more effective in controlling tree size as planting density increased. The trees had fewer flowers as planting density increased and BUD trees generally had more Bowers than CON. Triazole PGRs had little effect on the flowering pattern of `Gala' trees but tended to stimulate flowering of young `Delicious' TC trees, although the increases were not sustained. The D+E-S treatment increased flowering of `Gala' trees the last 3 years of the experiment and consistently increased flowering of `Delicious' TC trees. Fruit yields were higher for young `Gala' compared to `Delicious' trees and the final cumulative yield per tree for `Gala' was also greater. Yield per tree decreased as tree density increased and was the same for BUD and CON trees. D+E-S increased cumulative per tree yield of `Delicious' but not of `Gala'. Cumulative yields per tree for triazole-treated TC trees were the same as, or significantly lower than, CON trees. Increasing tree density did not increase yield/ha. Yield efficiency of `Gala' trees was increased by three, and of `Delicious' trees by one, of the triazole treatments, because they reduced TCSA proportionally more than they reduced per tree yield. There was less bienniality with `Gala' than `Delicious' and no difference between BUD and CON trees. Bienniality indices were higher for paclobutrazol-treated `Gala' trees compared with CON `Gala' but only uniconazole applied as a trunk paint increased the bienniality index of `Delicious' trees. Chemical names used: succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide (daminozide), (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (ethephon), (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-01 (paclobutrazol), (E)-(l-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(I,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole).
Richard H. Zimmerman and George L. Steffens
Amy Lynn Bartel and Terri W. Starman
Angelonia angustifolia `Blue Pacific', Asteriscus maritimus `Compact Gold Coin', and Heliotropium aborescens `Fragrant Delight' are three vegetatively propagated species of annuals. The objective of this study was to find which plant growth regulator chemicals could be used to control height and produce compact, well-branched, flowering plants. The plants arrived as rooted plugs and were transplanted to 10-cm plastic containers. When the roots of the transplanted plugs reached the edge of their containers, 15 days after transplanting, the plant growth regulator chemicals were applied. Five different chemicals were used in spray applications at two rates measured in mg/L: ancymidol at 66 and 132; daminozide at 2500 and 5000; paclobutrazol at 20 and 40; ethephon at 500 and1000; and uniconazole at 10 and 20. One drench application of uniconazole at 1 and 2 mg/L and one control (water spray) were also used. Total plant height, plant width, flower number, node number, stem length, internode length, and numbers of days to visible bud were recorded. Ancymidol at both rates caused stunting and flower distortion in asteriscus; however, it was not effective on angelonia or heliotrope. Paclobutrazol and uniconazole sprays were ineffective in controlling height on all three species. Ethephon at both rates was effective in controlling height, and producing well-branched plants in all three species, yet it caused a delay in flowering. Uniconazole drench at both rates was also effective in controlling height but caused stunting. In general, daminozide at 5000 mg/L was most effective in controlling foliage height without a delay in flowering or decrease in flower size or number in all three species.
Y.D. Park, H.S. Kim and B.K. Kang
The development of genetic transformation systems has led to remarkable progress in the area of plant molecular biology. This has included the introduction of useful traits, such as resistance to viruses, herbicides, and insects. Transformed plant cells can be selected, using chimeric genes that confer resistance to toxic drugs, such as kanamycin, hygromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, and bleomycin. Expression of these chimeric genes in the transformed cells confers the ability to survive and proliferate on the selective medium, while non-transformed cells die. In this study, we report a simple and efficient system to regenerate Chinese cabbage plants and study of the effects of plant growth regulators, AgNO3, initial dark treatment, various antibiotics, and herbicide on shoot induction from hypocotyl or cotyledon of Chinese cabbage. Shoots were induced at various combinations of naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA) levels. The best combination of plant growth regulators was 2.0 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BA for cotyledon, and 1.0 mg/L NAA and 5.0 mg/L BA for hypocotyl. The experiment investigating the effect of AgNO3 demonstrated that 16.7 mg/L AgNO3 was effective for inducing shoot regeneration from both of explants. Three to five days of initial dark treatments had significant effects for increasing the number of regenerated shoots; however, different growth regulator combinations showed various responses to duration of dark treatments. The effects of kanamycin, hygromycin, cefatoxime, carbenicillin and phosphinothricin (PPT) on shoot induction from cotyledon and hypocotyl were tested. Shoot induction was completely inhibited by kanamycin at 10 mg/L, hygromycin at 5 mg/L, PPT at 5 mg/L or higher, but not by carbenicillin and cefatoxime.
Seung-Hyun Kim, A.A. De Hertogh and P.V. Nelson
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of applied ancymidol, chlormequat, daminozide, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole on early spring (March) and late (May) spring forcing of Dutch-grown Bleeding Heart [Dicentra spectabilis (L.) Lem.] as a flowering pot plant. Most of the plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments delayed flowering, however, the average time to flower after planting was from 17 to 21 days for untreated plants and delays were only 3 to 6 days with PGR treatments. Thus, the effect is not important commercially. Acceptable plant quality and height control not only at flowering but also 14 days later was obtained with two sprays of 3000 mg·L-1 (ppm) daminozide or two sprays of 50 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol. Uniconazole reduced total plant height, however, because the inflorescence did not elongate, plant quality was greatly reduced. Most ancymidol sprays were phytotoxic producing a chlorosis of the leaf margins. Media drenches of ancymidol or chlormequat did not control total plant height. Sprays and media drenches of ancymidol, daminozide, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole produced plants with a very deep green leaf color, but chlormequat did not. The total number of shoots per tuberous root, the number of shoots with flowers, and stem strength were not significantly affected by PGR treatments. If the tuberous roots have been properly cold treated, they initiate growth rapidly after planting. Thus, the first PGR spray must be applied immediately after shoot growth is initiated, which was 6 to 8 days after planting, followed by a second spray 5 days later. Two applications are necessary because of uneven shoot emergence and growth from the tuberous roots.
Jeffrey Adelberg, Maria Delgado and Jeffrey Tomkins
, plant dry weight (DW), and subsequent growth in the greenhouse ( Gollagunta et al., 2004 ). Sugar and water use estimates for targeted crops would be useful to guide scale-up to larger bioreactor vessels. Plant growth regulators influenced nutritional
P.D. Petracek, F.P. Silverman and D.W. Greene
Gamil A. Kabbabe and William J. Carpenter
Verbena seed when harvested, has a natural dormancy that gradually dissipates during a 5 to 8 month period of dry storage. In this study, the gradual loss of the dormancy causing factor was correlated with germination percentage. Acetone treatment of verbena seeds was found to cause a slight, but non-significant, reduction in total germination. However, the infusion of gibberellic acid (GA4/7) and kinetin (KIN) with the acetone at various concentrations improved germination. The traditional method of seed osmoconditioning using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 8000) at -1.0 MPa caused a non-significant reduction in percent germination, similar to that with acetone. When growth regulators were mixed with the osmoconditioning solution, at the concentrations used with acetone, a definite and significant improvement in terms of rate and percent of germination was observed.
Douglas C Needham and P. Allen Hammer
Salpiglossis sinuata R. et P., a floriferous member of the Solanaceae, was studied for potential as a flowering potted plant when modified by growth retardants. Seedlings of an inbred line P-5 were covered with black cloth for an 8-hour photoperiod to permit vegetative growth to ≈16 -cm-diameter rosettes. Plants were then exposed to an 18-hour photoperiod for the duration of study. Flowering occurred 40 days after the plants were transferred to long days. Neither spray applications of uniconazole at 10, 20, 40, or 100 ppm, nor chlormequat chloride at 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm significantly retarded plant height. Applications of daminozide, ranging in concentration from 1000 to 5000 ppm, alone and in combination with chlormequat chloride, were effective at retarding plant height; however, concomitant restriction of corolla diameter was frequently observed. Chemical names used: 2-chloro- N,N,N -trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat chloride); butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); and (E) -1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) -1-penten-3-01 (uniconazole).
Anuradha Tatineni, Nihal C. Rajapakse, R. Thomas Fernandez and James R. Rieck
Responses to selected chemical growth retardants (daminozide, paclobutrazol, and prohexadione-Ca) and GA1 and GA3 under photoselective greenhouse covers with various phytochrome photoequilibrium estimates (φe) were evaluated using `Bright Golden Anne' chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflora Kitam. (syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)] as the model plant to better understand the height control mechanism by far red (FR) light depleted environments. Plant height linearly decreased as φe increased from 0.72 to 0.83. The rate of height decrease of daminozide treated plants was less than that of water (control) or GA3-treated plants. The rate of height reduction was not different between control and GA3-treated plants among chambers with various φe. Both paclobutrazol and prohexadione-Ca reduced plant height regardless of φe, but the height reduction by paclobutrazol was more than that by prohexadioneCa. The combination of paclobutrazol and prohexadione-Ca reduced plant height more than either alone. GA1 reversed the height reduction caused by paclobutrazol and prohexadione-Ca regardless of φe, but the height increase by GA1 was more when it was applied with prohexadione-Ca than when applied alone. Results show that photoselective covers with high φe were effective in controlling height of chrysanthemums without chemical growth retardants. The linear relationship between plant height and φe suggests that effectiveness of photoselective covers increased as φe increased. The photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) transmission of photoselective covers decreased as the φe increased because of the increasing dye concentration. Identifying photoselective covers that effectively filter out FR light from sunlight and reduce plant height while minimizing the PPF reduction is critical for commercial success of photoselective covers. Gibberellins are, at least partially, involved in height control by photoselective covers. Photoselective greenhouse covers did not reduce responsiveness to gibberellins, and it appears that the mechanism may be to suppress gibberellin biosynthesis. Results also suggest that increased metabolism of GA1 to GA8 was not the mechanism of height control by photoselective covers. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) [daminozide]; (±)-(R*,R*)-b-((4-chlorophenyl)methyl)-a-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol [paclobutrazol]; 3,5-dioxo-4-(1-oxopropyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid [prohexadione-Ca]; gibberellic acid [GA].
L. Manivel, R. Raj Kumar, S. Marimuthu and V. Venkatesalu
Growth regulators are used in tea plantations from planting to productivity. Paclobutrazol at 500 ppm applied on foliage, 1 month after planting, promotes lateral production, besides feeder root proliferation. Triacontanol at 2 ppm applied in mature tea improves productivity through enhanced photosynthesis, favorable partition of assimilates, and water-use efficiency. Hydrogen cyanamide applied on the pruned frame at 0.5% improves budbreak. Antitranspirants based on long-chain polymers impart drought-tolerance in young and mature tea. Thus, use of PGR for cost-effective management of tea plantations, without affecting the quality of made tea or bush health, has been standardized.