The objective of this study was to determine the influences of 8 commercial media, 4 peat-based and 4 pine bark-based, on the effects of uniconazole applied as a media drench to `Gutbier V-14 Glory' poinsettias. The peat-based media were Baccto Grower's Mix, Baccto High Porosity Professional, Baccto High Porosity Professional with Bacctite, and Baccto Rockwool Mix. The pine bark-based media were Metro 300, 360, 500, and 700. Uniconazole was applied to plants grown in each media at 5 rates (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg · 15 cm por1).
Uniconazole effectively reduced plant height and width, bract dry weight, and bract number in all media. Plants grown in the Metro products, however, tended to be larger than those grown in the Baccto products. Bract size and number, plant weight, width and height were greatest in Metro 360. The rockwool mix produced the smallest plants. Plants grown in the peat-based media were more sensitive to uniconazole drenches. Plants grown in Metro 360 were the least sensitive to uniconazole drenches.
Pine bark cation exchange capacity (CEC) (by Ba/Mg exchange on four particle size fractions) increased regularly from 38 to 98 meq/100 g between pH 4 and 7. Decreasing particle size from <2.38 to <0.05 mm did not result in the expected large increases in bark CEC. The Ba/Mg CEC of unsieved bark samples was less than that determined by the weighted average of component size fractions. Monovalent/monovalent-determined CEC was higher than Ba/Mg, indicating that a number of differing charge-specific sites are involved. The pH-dependent CEC increase between pH 4 and 7 was greater for divalent exchange than for monovalent. Ammonium/K CEC was higher than K/NH4 CEC, probably due to enhanced NH4 adsorption by carboxyl groups. Infrared analysis of pine bark revealed that surface functional group composition is similar to soil organic matter. The accurate measurement of CEC in pine bark is complicated by solution pH and ionic strength, as well as by the cations employed for exchange.
Equal volumes of peanut hulls, pine bark, and sphagnum peatmoss were combined into 5 media. Particle size distribution, total porosity, air space, easily available water, water buffering capacity, and bulk density were determined for each medium. Top dry weight, root dry weight, and percent growth of Rhododendron indicum (L.) Sweet cv. George L. Taber were measured 14 weeks after potting in 1-liter containers. Peanut hulls increased particle size, total porosity, and air space, and decreased easily available water, water buffering capacity, and bulk density of media. Peatmoss generally reduced total porosity and air space and increased easily available water, water buffering capacity, and bulk density regardless of other component combinations. Top dry weight, root dry weight, and percent growth were greater in peanut hull-containing media. Addition of peatmoss to the container media tended to produce less growth.
Volume of loose media was determined accurately by a devised mechanical method and used for bulk density (BD) calculations. BD associated with increasing percentages of pine bark and/or sand potting media were plotted. Linear increase in BD associated with increasing percentage of sand in the medium was used to predict the percentage by volume of sand and/or bark in an unknown mixture of the two components. The technique should be useful in synthesis studies utilizing pine bark and sand as medium components.
The physical and chemical properties of pine bark yield low water and nutrient efficiency; consequently, an engineered substrate altering the substrate properties may allow greater water and nutrient retention. Past research has focused on controlling the quantity and rate of water and nutrient inputs. In this study, pine bark was amended at 8% (by volume) with a Georgiana palygorksite-bentonite blended industrial mineral aggregate with a particle size of 850 μm-4.75 mm or 300 μm-710 μm to improve water and nutrient efficiency. Each particle size was pretreated at temperatures of ≈140 °C (pasteurized) or ≈390 °C (calcined). The study was a 2 (particle size) × 2 (heat pretreatment) factorial in a randomized complete-block design with four replications. The control was a pine bark substrate amended with 11% sand (by volume). Containers (14 L) were topdressed with 17–5–12 controlled release fertilizer. A 0.2 leaching fraction was maintained by biweekly monitoring container influent from spray stakes and effluent volume measured daily. An aliquot of the daily collected effluent was analyzed for phosphorus (P). After 112 days, tops and roots were harvested, dried, and weighed for dry weight comparisons. Compared to pine bark amended with sand the 300 μm-710 μm particle size mineral decreased mean daily water application by ≈0.4 L/day per container. The calcined mineral reduced P leaching by ≈10 mg of P per container or 60% over the course of the study compared to pine bark: sand. Top and root dry weights were unaffected. These results suggest 300 μm–710 μm calcined mineral provided the most significant decreases in water use and P leaching while growing an equivalent plant.
Pine bark and peat-based substrates have been shown to have low-phosphorus (P) fixation capacity and high leach-potential, similar to that occurring in high-organic soils lacking in inorganic colloids. A long-term greenhouse experiment was conducted where three rootstock species of varying growth rate, Citrus jambhiri Lush.(RL), Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. (CM), and Poncirus trifoliata L. × Citrus sinensis L. (Osbeck) (CC), were grown in 3-L containers in composted pine bark, amended with three forms of P. Two slowly soluble forms (Calmafos and MagAmp) and soluble single superphosphate were incorporated at 0 (control), 200, 400, and 800 g P/m3, in a completely randomized block design (n = six plants). A split fertigation treatment of P at 50 mg·L–1 vs. No P was superimposed on the design (n = 3). Despite significant (P > 0.01) differences in P availability in the substrate after 380 days, particularly between liquid P (μ = 65 mg·L–1) vs. no liquid P (μ = 15 mg·L–1), differences in leaf analysis of seedlings after 235 days showed little significance (2.2 vs. 2.7 mg·g–1). To avoid excessive leaching of P from pine bark substrates, it therefore appears that slow-release forms of P are adequate to maintain relatively high growth rates of citrus stock without supplemental P fertigation.
A study was conducted to determine the effects of pine bark grind size and pine bark levels on the activity of two growth regulators on poinsettia Two bark grinds (≤ 6 mm and >10 mm) were used with four media combinations within each grind: vermiculite:bark:peat moss at 2:0:3, 2:1:2, 2:2:1, and 2:3:0 (by volume). Two growth regulators, paclobutrazol and uniconazole, were applied at 0, 0.125, and 0.250 mg/15 cm container in 250 ml water. Two poinsettia cultivars, `Freedom' and `Gutbier V-14 Glory', were planted September 2, 1993, pinched September 16, and growth regulators applied September 30. There were five single plant replications for each treatment. Stem length and bract area were effected by bark grind, bark level, growth regulator, and growth regulator rate. Plants treated with uniconazole had the shortest stems and the least bract area. Plants grown in the smaller grind and at higher bark levels were less effected. Plants treated with paclobutrazol had longer stems than those treated with uniconazole.
; Williamson and Lyrene 2004b ). Many new southern highbush blueberry (SHB) plantings in the southeastern United States are grown in pine bark beds that are 15 to 20 cm deep and of varying widths rather than in the underlying soil ( Williamson et al., 2006
Abbreviations: PB, pine bark. 1 Former Graduate Research Assistant. Current address: USDA-ARS, Root Disease and Biological Control Research Unit, 367 Johnson Hall, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99164-6430. 2 Professor. This research was
properties of pine bark substrates amended with parboiled rice hulls 70 weeks after planting in #5 containers with and without (fallow) spirea plants. Total porosity in the initial blends was greatest in substrates with 40% to 100% PBH and TP in those same