Survival of peach flowers during spring or winter freezes and large fruit size at harvest are critical for profitable peach production in the Southeast. Delaying both bud swell in late winter and flower phenology in spring reduces the risk of flower bud death from cold temperatures. Preliminary research in Tennessee using soybean oil (SO) as a dormant oil spray in place of Superior oil showed SO delayed peach bloom, thinned flower buds, and increased fruit size. In 1997, a `Harvester' peach orchard in Monetta, S.C., and a `Redhaven' orchard near Clemson, S.C., were sprayed in early February with 0%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% SO mixed with 1% (by volume) Latron B-1956. Number of dead flower buds and the flower bud stages for each SO treatment were recorded during the first pink to full bloom flowering period. Excess fruit were hand-thinned in late April. Fruit set, maturity date, weight, and yield/tree were taken. Bud death increased from 14% (control) to 17% to 20% at the 8%, 10%, and 12% SO rates for `Redhaven' and from 13% (control) to 21% at the 10% and 12% rates for `Harvester'. Phenology was delayed 3-4 days for `Redhaven' at 8%, 10%, and 12% SO, but no differences were noted in the `Harvester' trees. No differences in fruit maturity occurred. Fruit weight and yield/tree was higher for all `Harvester' SO treatments and the `Redhaven' 10% and 12% SO treatments. No shoot phytotoxicity was observed.
Treatments of single applications of 0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12% dormant oil were sprayed on peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees on 6 Feb. 1990. A repeat application of 6% oil plus 6% oil applied 6 days later was also made. Internal CO 2 concentrations of oil-treated buds and twigs were higher than the control the day after treatment and continued to be higher for 6 days. The second application of 10% oil prolonged the elevated CO2 concentration. Applications of 9% or 12% oil delayed flower bud development and bloom. The repeated application of 6% oil delayed bud development and bloom more than a single application of 6% oil. Damage to fruit buds increased as oil concentration increased, but repeated application of 6% oil resulted in less damage than a single application of 12% oil.
Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindel. `Casselman') trees exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressure treatments were sprayed with a summer application of Volck Supreme oil (1% aqueous solution) to control an outbreak of spider mites (Tetranychus spp.). Phytotoxic effects were observed on the foliage of trees in the plots exposed to ambient or higher atmospheric ozone partial pressures 5 days following spray application. Foliage on trees exposed to 0.044 and 0.081 μPa·Pa-1 ozone [12-h mean (8 Apr. to 12 June 1992)] partial pressures developed water spotting and more foliage abscission than trees exposed to charcoal-filtered air (0.024 μPa·Pa-1 ozone). Thus, ozone air-pollution stress may predispose plants to increased phytotoxicity from summer oils.
In five experiments with `Redchief Delicious' and one with `Braeburn', oxamyl (Vydate 2L) was used alone or combined with other chemicals to thin apples. The thinning response to oxamyl depended on dose. In most cases, oxamyl at 600 mg·L−1 and carbaryl at 900 mg·L−1 thinned trees similarly, but the combination of oxamyl plus carbaryl was no more effective than either chemical alone. The combination of oxamyl plus NAA (2.5 to 5 mL·L−1) was slightly more effective than either material alone. The thinning response to oxamyl and carbaryl was related to the concentration of superior oil added to the spray solution; for both chemicals, adding oil at 5 mg·L−1 or Tween 20 at 1.25 mL·L−1 gave equivalent thinning. Apples on trees sprayed with oxamyl plus oil had a dull finish. Adding Tween 20 at 1.25 mL·L−1 improved the thinning activity of carbaryl (Sevin XLR-Plus) more than oxamyl. Similar thinning occurred whether oxamyl was applied when fruit diameter averaged 4 or 10 mm. On `Braeburn' oxamyl, carbaryl, Accel, and NAA were mild thinners, but all combinations of oxamyl or carbaryl plus Accel or NAA overthinned the trees without improving fruit size. In general, oxamyl at 600 mg·L−1 (2 pints of vydate 2L/100 gal.) and carbaryl thin apple trees similarly, and the efficacy of both chemicals is improved by adding a surfactant.
Soybean oil can be used as an alternative pesticide for fruit trees. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the effects of oil concentration on leaf phytotoxicity and net CO2 assimilation (ACO2 ). In one study, concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% soybean oil in water were applied to individual shoots with a hand-held mist bottle. In the second study, 0%, 1.0%, and 1.5% were applied to whole trees with an airblast sprayer. Petroleum oil was applied as a separate treatment. Net CO2 assimilation was measured on single leaves. Oil residue was removed from the leaf with chloroform, dried, and weighed. Chlorosis and defoliation occurred with applications of 4% and 6% soybean oil. No visible phytotoxicity occurred with 2% or less oil. Net CO2 assimilation decreased as the rate of soybean oil increased from 0% to 4% oil, but there was no difference between 4% and 6%. Net CO2 assimilation decreased with increasing oil concentration from 0% to 1.5% and recovered to the rate of the control on day 7. Net CO2 assimilation was negatively related to oil residue. At an equivalent oil residue, there was no difference in ACO2 between petroleum and soybean oil. Below a residue of 0.15 mg·cm–2, foliar phytoxicity did not occur. Reductions in ACO2 were small and did not last longer than 7 days if residues were ≤0.10 mg·cm–2.
Using soybean oil to control insect pests, delay bloom, and thin fruit in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] production could reduce yield losses and fruit thinning costs compared to the current practice of using petroleum oil spray to control insect pests alone. The higher annua cost of soybean oil spray compared to petroleum oil spray was more than offset by higher average annual revenue from increased peach yields and lower thinning costs. At one location, soybean oil to delay bloom and thin fruit unambiguously reduced production risk. At another location, both mean and variance of returns were higher, but a lower coefficient of variation suggested lower relative risk for the soybean oil spray alternative. Risk resulting from the unanticipated influence of weather and mismanagement on the effectiveness of soybean oil spray were not considered in this analysis. More research is needed to hone in on the optimum soybean oil spray rates under alternative environmental and management conditions.
An N rate associated with reduced fruit production substantially reduced the quantity of peel oil on a per metric ton (MT) of fruit basis and the yield of oil on a per hectare basis of ‘Pineapple’ orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) K had no significant effect on the peel oil content on a per ha basis, but did increase fruit production (MT/ha) and reduced the peel of oil content.
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted at two sites in Nova Scotia during 2001 and 2002 to assess the potential to grow fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) as an essential oil crop in the Maritime region of Canada. Three cultivars—`Shumen', `Berfena', and `Sweet Fennel'—and two seeding dates—24 May and 8 June—were evaluated. Essential oil yields and composition were determined and compared to commercially available fennel essential oil from the U.S. The highest herbage yields were produced by `Shumen' from the earlier seeding date. Essential oil content and yields were lowest in `Sweet Fennel' and highest in `Shumen'. The major component of the essential oil was anethole, 47% to 80.2%. Other major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol, fenchone, α-phellandrene, α-pinene, ortho cymene, β-phellandrene, fenchyl acetate, β-pinene, and apiole. The essential oil composition was unique to each cultivar. The highest methyl chavicol content was in `Shumen', while the highest concentration of phellandrene, fenchyl acetate and apiole were detected in `Sweet Fennel' oil. Fenchone, ortho cymene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-pinene were the highest in `Berfena'. The composition of the oil was similar to the commercially purchased oil and met industry requirements of oil composition. The results suggest there is potential to grow fennel as an essential oil crop in Nova Scotia.
Environmental factors such as rainfall may reduce the efficacy of foliar-applied soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] oil in reducing pest mortality. Greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the influence of rain on the retention of soybean oil and the influence of soybean oil and rainfall on surface morphology of apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Peach Group)] leaves and stems. `Contender' peach and `Golden Delicious'/Malling 27 apple trees were grown in 19 L pots in a greenhouse (23 ± 9 °C) and sprayed with soybean oil (1%) emulsified with the adjuvants Latron B-1956 or K1. Twenty-four hours after treatment, the trees were subjected to simulated rainfall of 0.0, 0.25, 1.25, or 2.54 cm. A negative linear relationship existed between rainfall and oil retention. Peach leaves receiving 0.25, 1.25, and 2.54 cm rainfall retained 81%, 38%, and 18% of the applied oil, respectively. Oil retention by apple leaves was also negatively related to rainfall. For both species, a negative linear relationship existed between oil retention on stems and rainfall. There was no effect of emulsifier on retention of 1% soybean oil after rain on apple leaves or on the retention of 8% to 11% soybean oil on the stems of apple and peach. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that epicuticular wax occurred as striations on apple and peach leaves. The wax morphology on peach and apple stems appeared as thin plates and platelets, respectively. The wax morphology of leaves and stems of both trees was not affected either by the soybean oil emulsions or rain. Both emulsions induced stomatal closure in leaves and peach stems, however, stomates opened after rainfall of 1.25 or 2.54 cm. The lenticels appeared to be unaffected by either emulsion. Results illustrate that rainfall of 2.54 cm washed off a major portion of the applied oil. Thus, respraying may be needed under natural climatic conditions with rainfall ≥2.54 cm to restore the efficacy of applied soybean oil.
Treatments of 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40% (v/v) refined (salad) or crude soybean oil or 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% petroleum (dormant) oil at 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% were sprayed until drip on `Smoothee' apple trees on 27 February 1991. The internal carbon dioxide concentration was elevated and the oxygen content reduced within one day in buds-twigs treated with oil and remained influenced for up to 12 days. All oil treatments delayed fruit bud development. The lowest tested concentration of soybean oil (either crude or refined) resulted in the greatest delay in bud development and the greatest delay in bloom (approximately 4 days). Crude soybean oil treatment resulted in less damage to flower buds than petroleum oil.