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subjected to extreme conditions in urban environments ( Harris et al., 1999 ). Surprisingly, for many plant groups, including Salvia taxa, tolerance to high temperatures remains largely unstudied. Variations in heat tolerance among plants can be resolved

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it an attractive cultivar choice. The seed parent of the hybrid is Fla. 8814, which is the tospovirus and fusarium wilt race 3 – resistant parent. The pollen parent is Fla. 8925, which provides the heat tolerance to the hybrid. Origin ‘Solar Dancer

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differentially to heat stress. Thus it appears flower size heat tolerance exists in diploid roses ( Liang et al., 2017 ). A rose with high temperature tolerance and consistent flowering during the warm season will contribute to maintaining a good landscape

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The effect of increasing temperatures on the duration of postharvest flower development was determined for three specialty crop species: marguerite (Argyranthemum frutescens Webb ex Schultz-Bip.) `Butterfly' and `Sugar Baby'; swan river daisy (Brachycome hybrid Cass.) `Ultra'; and bacopa (Sutera cordata Roth.) `Snowflake'. Plants were grown in a greenhouse at 18 °C (65 °F) until flowering, and then transferred into a phytotron to determine heat tolerance. Plants were stored for 8 weeks at constant temperatures of 18, 23, 28, and 33 °C (65, 73, 82, and 91 °F) for 2-week intervals. Flower bud and flower number were recorded weekly. Sutera cordata `Snowflake' and B. hybrid `Ultra' had the greatest flower number at the 23 °C temperature, decreasing in the 28 °C environment. Argyranthemum frutescens `Butterfly' and `Sugar Baby' had greatest flower number at 28 °C, but flowers were of lower quality thanat 23 °C. Flower development of all cultivars ceased at 33 °C, at the end of 8 weeks at increasing temperatures, but when plants were returned to the 18 °C production greenhouse, flower development resumed. High temperatures (28 °C) reduce the postharvest performance of S. cordata, B. hybrid, and A. frutescens plants grown in hanging baskets; therefore, these species should be marketed as spring-flowering products since summer performance may be unsatisfactory in warm climates.

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sites. A QTL explaining 36% of the phenotypic variation for remontancy identified in the Maryland, Michigan, and Minnesota populations, but not in California or Oregon, was hypothesized as a potential locus for heat tolerance. The identification of

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not offer a clear illustration of accuracy in these heat tolerance claims ( Table 1 ; Fig. 1 ). ‘Donkey’, ‘Tyee’, and ‘Marabu’ were expected to maintain higher germination percentages at higher temperatures, but ‘Tyee’ had the lowest germination

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transpirational water loss, increasing water uptake, and/or adjusting osmotically to maintain photosynthesis and other metabolic functions ( Bonos and Murphy, 1999 ; Qian and Fry, 1997 ; White et al., 1992 ; Zhang and Schmidt, 1999 ). Heat tolerance in

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Summer decline in turf quality of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Hud.) is a major problem in golf course green management. The objective of this study was to examine whether seasonal changes and cultivar variations in turf performance are associated with changes in photosynthesis and respiration rates for creeping bentgrass. The study was conducted on a USGA-specification putting green in Manhattan, Kans., during 1997 and 1998. Four creeping bentgrass cultivars, `L-93', `Crenshaw', `Penncross', and `Providence', were examined. Grasses were mowed daily at 4 mm and irrigated on alternate days to replace 100% of daily water loss. In both years, turf quality, canopy net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and leaf photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) were high in May and June and decreased to the lowest levels in July through September. Whole-plant respiration rate (R) and canopy minus air temperature (▵T) increased during summer months. In October, turf quality and Pn increased, whereas R and T decreased. During summer months, turf quality was highest for `L-93', lowest for `Penncross', and intermediate for `Providence' and `Crenshaw'. Seasonal changes and cultivar variations in turf quality were associated with the decreasing photosynthetic rate and increasing respiration rate.

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