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Harrison Hughes, Elizabeth Mogen, Steven Newman, James Klett and Anthony Koski

An assessment plan for the Horticulture and Landscape Horticulture majors has been developed as part of a university-wide effort to assess resident instruction. The program mission has been described as the preparation of graduates with a passion for Horticulture/Landscape Horticulture who can contribute to Colorado's agricultural and green industry economy through high levels of: 1) technical competency and skills, including disciplinary competence, and a working knowledge in the appropriate field; 2) management and leadership skills; and 3) problem-solving skills. Assessment methods involved the development of evaluation forms for internships, practicum, independent study, group study, and the capstone courses. Student, faculty, clients, and industry personnel used standardized forms, which varied somewhat for the two majors and seven concentrations, to critically assess and score student and faculty efforts. Internships, practicum, and capstone courses were evaluated for program purpose. The management and leadership skills of the students were evaluated based on their performance during internships by cooperators and also by their activities, as demonstrated through their involvement in university, college, departmental, and community activities. Problem-solving skills were evaluated primarily through student performance in capstone courses, with specific criteria in the internship and in leadership activities of clubs. The expectation is that 70% to 75% of the students will score 3 or 3+ on all criteria established for a rating system of 1–5. Students have generally met this standard and plans are under way to continually upgrade courses and related activities to improve the teaching program

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Benjamin L. Campbell and William Steele

The number of pollinators has been reported to be decreasing for the past several decades. Numerous sources (e.g., climate change, pesticides, loss of habitat) have been noted as potential contributing factors to the decline. With respect to the green industry, the impact of pesticides on pollinator decline and consumer response to this impact is of critical importance. Although no definitive link exists of pesticides being a major contributing factor to pollinator decline, some retailers have banned their suppliers from using certain pesticides. As various sources (e.g., universities, media, activist groups) provide information (both positive, neutral, and negative) about the impact of pesticides on pollinators, no information exists regarding how consumers value such information. Using a sample of Connecticut consumers, this study evaluates how both information source and information type impact a consumer’s decision to purchase pollinator-friendly plants in the future. The study finds that consumers exposed to either neutral (no link between pesticides and pollinator decline) or negative (link between pesticides and pollinator decline) information from universities and major media outlets indicate they will purchase more pollinator-friendly plants compared with the no information (control) treatment. The results show that information from the federal government, nursery/greenhouse industry associations, and environmental activist groups have the same impact on self-reported future pollinator-friendly plant purchasing as the no information group.

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James C. Sellmer, Nancy Ostiguy, Kelli Hoover and Kathleen M. Kelley

in part by an IPM Green Industry Grant from the Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Harrisburg. Wethank Christopher O'Connor, Jason Rosenzweig, Gary Moorman, Greg Hoover, Dave Suchanic, Emelie Swackhamer, Don Narber, Rick

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Scott R. Templeton, Cheryl Brown, George E. Goldman, Seung Jick Yoo and Vijay S. Pradhan

California Green Industry Council, Tom Bellows, Robin Brumfield, David Burger, Steve Cieslewicz, Kim Crum, Pete Dominguez, Jim Husting, Hap Kellogg, William Latham, Deborah Nolan, Dennis Pittenger, Larry Rohlfes, Jack Wick, and three anonymous reviewers

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Pedro Perdomo* and Kenneth Karamichael

Industry statistics indicate that there are approximately 150,000 people working in the green industry in New Jersey. About 50% to 60% are Hispanic. Nationally, 43% of Hispanics are not proficient in English. The education of Hispanic workers in their own language increases job skills, improves efficiency, and on the job safety. Spanish language horticultural courses were offered to educate members of the landscape community in New Jersey. Spanish language courses included general turf management, pruning of trees and shrubs, plant identification, hazardous tree identification, and basic pesticide training. The landscape classes began with a slide presentation that covered basic concepts, materials, and techniques that the landscaper should be aware of. Whenever possible, the courses were taught in a bilingual (Spanish/English) format to help participants familiarize themselves with English terms. Along with the in-class training, outdoor demonstrations were incorporated into all courses and participants were given the opportunity to practice what they had learned in the classroom. Over one hundred fifty employees registered for the classes between Jan. and Dec. 2003. Certificates of attendance were issued to all participants and were considered as a positive component of the courses. About 24% of the participants attended more than one of the courses and 100% would recommend the courses to their friends and co-workers. Seventy five percent of landscape business owners stated that they would consider sending other employees to future courses. Fifty percent of the participants were interested in attending courses that covered technical information, such as those offered to the English speaking landscape community.

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A.M. Shirazi and G.H. Ware

The genus Ulmus contains numerous stress-tolerant species, especially those from areas of China with climates similar to various regions of the United States. Lace-bark elm, Ulmus parvifolia, the true Chinese elm, has an extensive temperature distribution range in China and offers great promise as a street tree. The high resistance of this elm to Dutch elm disease and other elm problems makes it an excellent tree for urban landscapes. Two new U. parvifolia cultivars, Athena® and Allee®, are not cold hardy for northern climates and there is a need for new cold hardy lace-bark elms. Screening thousands of seedlings for cold hardiness, upright form, beautiful bark characteristics, and larger leaves will bring the most desirable U. parvifolia cultivars into the green industry. We determined that seed dormancy and the percentage of seed germination of four selected lacebark elms after 2 and 4 weeks were >30% and >50%, respectively. There were significant differences in stem cold hardiness among new lace-bark elms from China (about –32 to –40 °C). Laboratory determination of cold hardiness can provide great advantages over years of field testing. Response to the outdoor temperature in December, January, and February on a seed cold hardiness freezing test showed significant reduction in seed germination, especially at –30 °C. Freezing test of seeds to –40 °C, resulted in lt 50 of –3 to –5 °C in December, so, it is less likely that these U. parvifoilia will become invasive in northern latitudes. Invasiveness of these U. parvifolia for higher zones, e.g., 6–8 could be greater and selection of these elms is suitable for zones 5 and lower. Planting these elms in zones 4, 3, and 2 will give us useful information regarding their winter performance.

Open access

Bethany A. Harris, Wojciech J. Florkowski and Svoboda V. Pennisi

in the United States, with petroleum-based plastic containers accounting for 1.6 billion pounds of plastic ( Schrader, 2013 ). Moving toward sustainability, the green industry has shown an increased interest in biodegradable containers in the United

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Amy Fulcher, Diana R. Cochran and Andrew K. Koeser

during nursery and greenhouse production as unsustainable ( Behe et al., 2013 ). This can hinder the green industry’s efforts to promote themselves as “green” to environmentally conscious consumers. Recent market research suggests that consumers are

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

cycle assessment. As the green industry continues to mature, differentiation is an increasingly important business strategy for green industry businesses. One such way to accomplish this is by adopting environmentally friendly behaviors and/or selling

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John J. Haydu, Alan. W. Hodges and Charles R. Hall

industries struggle to access more resources and the public becomes increasingly concerned over agricultural-related pollution, the need to document their importance is more crucial. Consequently, an abundance of “green industry” studies funded by state trade