, conventional, and chisel tillage under simulated rainfall Trans. ASAE 33 1557 1562 CTIC 2004 Conservation tillage trends 1990–2004 National CropResidue Management Survey. Conservation Technology Information Center West Lafayette, IN Derpsch, R. Roth, C
( Agehara and Warncke, 2005 ; Hartz and Johnstone, 2006 ) and second weeks ( Koller et al., 2004 ). Khalil et al. (2005) observed a rapid increase in ammonia production in the first 2 weeks for cropresidues and chicken manure. The potential of BM as an
amounts of compost (e.g., resulting in mulch depths of 3–10 cm) to bury weed seeds and then deploy tarps between cash crop growing periods to manage weeds and cropresidue. This strategy can be effective, but it is limited by the amount of high
early ASD research in The Netherlands (where this soil treatment is often referred to as biological soil disinfestation), several researchers examined impacts of ASD treatment using fresh grass or cropresidues as a C source on soilborne pathogens of
was removed from the study site.
Soil and groundcover sampling and analysis.
Starting 1 month after application of 15 N-enriched compost, samples of soil, wood chip duff, and cover cropresidue were taken ≈15 cm from the base of each tree
use of PCS with peat is, however, limited. The few previous studies that have evaluated PCS or other cropresidues suggested that they may produce biomass yields similar to those of peat ( Peterson and Jackson, 2014 ; Vaughn et al., 2011 , 2013
) and triticale ( Triticale hexaploide ) cover crops in the centers of 60-inch beds before transplanting. Their system was predicated by the use of subsurface drip irrigation ( Phene, 2010 ). The extent of the grass cover cropresidue on the bed surface
systems that incorporate the use of a warm-season legume cover crop. The high level of nitrogen provided by cowpea cover cropresidue is important in organic crop production where the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers is prohibited. Additionally, a
return of nutrients to the soil with the cropresidue; 4) analyze a posteriori the crop N status and fertilizer management following the principle of the %N crit and using the N nutrition index (NNI) proposed by Lemaire et al. (1989) . Materials and
application to improve soil quality. These include cropresidues, animal manures, food waste, yard trimming waste, and organic agricultural byproducts ( Marriott and Zaborski, 2015 ; Stoffella et al., 2014 ). Proper composting, as defined by the NOP, is