Chlorosis from lime-induced Fe deficiency limits grapevine ( Vitis L.) growth and productivity ( Bavaresco et al., 2003 ; Gruber and Kosegarten, 2002 ; Mengel et al., 1984a ). As soil pH increases, Fe solubility decreases, and an increase in
chlorosis and abscission ( Agehara and Leskovar, 2012 ; Kim and van Iersel, 2011 ; Waterland et al., 2010 ). Therefore, the overall growth modification must be considered to further optimize ABA application methods for height control. Seedless (triploid
Iron-deficiency (Fe-deficiency) stress, characterized by chlorosis of leaf tissue, is a major limiting factor in turfgrass production on calcareous soils. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate ferrihydrite-amended growth media and the threshold amount of Fe initially added for use in a whole-plant screening procedure for selecting cultivars that are tolerant to Fe-deficiency stress conditions; 2) measure and evaluate whole-plant growth characteristics that could be an index of Fe deficiency stress; and 3) assess the potential of using a synthetically produced Fe oxide, ferrihydrite, as a slow-release Fe fertilizer source. Iron-stress sensitive `Raleigh' St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] and Fe-stress tolerant `Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Davy] cultivars were grown under glasshouse conditions in a medium consisting of quartz sand, 5% (m/m) CaCO,, and a ferrihydrite amendment providing Fe in concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 46, or 120 mg·kg-1 media, (equivalent to 2, 3, 4, 5, or 10 mg DTPA-extractable Fe/kg media). There also was a nonlimiting iron control. St. Augustinegrass was first rated for iron chlorosis 83 days after planting (DAP) while bermudagrass was first rated at 294 DAP. Initial Fe levels equivalent to 5 mg DTPA-extractable Fe/kg media showed potential for screening genotypes. Visual estimates of iron chlorosis and chlorophyll contents of leaves were the best indicators of low soil Fe availability. A single ferrihydrite soil amendment at 10 mg DTPA-extractable Fe/kg media was adequate in preventing chlorosis for the duration of the study (174 and 509 days for St. Augustinegrass and bermudagrass, respectively). Chemical name used: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA).
The objective of this study was to quantify how photoprotective mechanisms in the leaves of `Concord' grapevines (Vitis labruscana Bailey) respond to a range of iron (Fe) supply. Own-rooted, 1-year-old container-grown vines were fertigated twice weekly for 11 weeks with a complete nutrient solution containing 1, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μm Fe from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA). Leaf total Fe content did not increase in response to Fe supply; however, “active” Fe (extracted with 2,2′-dipyridyl) and chlorophyll (Chl) increased on a leaf area basis as applied Fe increased. At the lowest active Fe level, leaf absorptance and the efficiency of excitation transfer (Fv′/Fm′) was lower, and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) was significantly greater. Photosystem II (PSII) quantum efficiency decreased curvilinearly, and the proportion of PSII reaction centers in the open state (qP) decreased linearly as active Fe content decreased. On a Chl basis, the xanthophyll cycle pool size [violaxanthin (V) + antheraxanthin (A) + zeaxanthin (Z)], lutein, and β-carotene increased curvilinearly as active Fe decreased, and neoxanthin (Neo) increased at the lowest Fe level. On a leaf area basis, as active Fe decreased, V+A+Z and β-carotene decreased curvilinearly, and lutein and Neo decreased linearly. At noon, conversion of V to A and Z increased as active Fe decreased. On a Chl basis, activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) increased curvilinearly, and glutathione reductase (GR) activity increased linearly as active Fe levels declined. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT), on a Chl basis, were relatively constant. On a leaf area basis, a decrease in active Fe increased SOD and MDAR activity, whereas APX, CAT, DHAR and GR activity decreased. Antioxidant metabolites ascorbate (AsA), dehydroascorbate (DAsA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) also increased in response to Fe limitation when expressed on a Chl basis, whereas on a leaf area basis AsA and DAsA decreased and GSH increased curvilinearly. The GSH:GSSG ratio increased as active Fe declined, whereas the AsA:DAsA ratio did not change. In conclusion, both photoprotective mechanisms, xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal dissipation and the ascorbate-glutathione antioxidant system, are enhanced in response to Fe deficiency to cope with excess absorbed light. In a low soil pH tolerant species such as V. labruscana, the foliar antioxidant system was upregulated in response to excess absorbed light from Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, and there was no evidence of an increase in oxidative stress from high rates of applied Fe-EDDHA.
Significant differences in iron and chlorophyll content occurred between 25 cultivars and 5 blends of 3 year old, well-established Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). ‘Adelphi’, 111. 38-17, ‘Sodco’, ‘Sydsport’, ‘Windsor’, and blends of ‘Common’ + ‘Kenblue’ and ‘Windsor’ + ‘Merion’ received highest visual ratings for dark green color.
We assessed variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and needle chlorophyll concentration of seedlings of Maccedonia fir (Abies borisii regis Mattfeld), subalpine fir [A. lasiocarpa (Hooker) Nuttall], Sakhalin fir [A. sachalinensis (Schmidt) Mast.], Siberian fir [A. sibirica (Lebed.)], and Veitch fir (A. veitchii Lindl.) grown under varying soil media pH. Soil media pH was modified using liquid flowable dolomitic limestone, resulting in five pH levels (3.4, 4.0, 5.4, 6.0, and 6.8). Increasing media pH significantly reduced Fv/Fm and needle chlorophyll concentration in all of the species tested. The effect of pH on photochemistry was due to depressed nutrient uptake of P, Mn, B, and Cu. Because photosynthetic quantum yield may be related to deficiencies of several elements affected by pH, Fv/Fm may serve as a criterion to select for improved pH tolerance. Among the species examined, A. veitchii and A. lasiocarpa were most tolerant of increased pH based on Fv/Fm and needle chlorophyll concentration.
Geranium seedlings were exposed to various levels of ethylene (0–10 µl/liter air) at 23°C for 2 and 5 days in light. Seedlings held in ethylene for 2 days developed more chlorotic leaves and did not grow as well as seedlings held in air. Seedlings exposed to ethylene for 5 days abscised leaves, whereas those exposed for 2 days did not. Seedlings exposed to ethylene (1 µl/liter air) at 23° for 3 days in dark had more chlorotic leaves and did not grow as well as seedlings exposed to ethylene in light. Seedlings held in air in darkness had more chlorotic leaves than seedlings held in air in light. Seedlings held in air in the laboratory grew as well as seedlings held in the greenhouse. Seedlings exposed to ethylene (1 µl/liter air) for 3 days in dark retained more chlorophyll and had better growth at low temperatures (4.5°, 10°) than those exposed at higher temperatures (15.5°, 23°). Seedlings held in air at all temperatures for 3 days had similar chlorophyll levels and growth patterns. Temperature was negatively correlated with loss of chlorophyll and plant dry weight and positively correlated with number of chlorotic leaves of seedling held in darkness for 7 days.
Suppressed growth and chlorotic leaves of Japanese holly (Ilex crenata, Thunb. ‘Hetzii’) when grown in hardwood bark, were caused by the uptake of excessive amounts of available Mn in bark leachates.
Grapefruit trees (Citrus paradisi Macf.) budded on Kama Khatta and sour orange were most productive in a test including 10 rootstocks. Karna Khatta, sour orange, and Yuzu were tolerant, ‘Orlando’ tangelo and ‘Ortanique’ tangor were intolerant of calcareous soil. Trees on Karna Khatta were more susceptible to foot rot than trees on sour orange.
Interactions between irradiance levels (5–40 μmol·m-2·s-1) and iron chelate sources (FeEDTA and FeEDDHA) were observed for Carica papaya shoot tip cultures during both the establishment and proliferation stages of microculture. Reduced levels of irradiance (5 μmol·m-2·s-1) favored shoot tip establishment regardless of the source or level of iron. However, the highest percentage of successful explant establishment (100%), and significantly greater leaf length (1.16 cm; over double the size attained in any other treatment), resulted when a low concentration of FeEDTA alone was used at low irradiance. During the subsequent shoot proliferation stage, however, higher irradiance levels (30 and 40 μmol·m-2·s-1) were required, and FeEDTA failed to support culture growth when used as the sole iron source. The highest multiplication rates (3.6 shoots per explant) and leaf chlorophyll concentrations (0.22 mg/g fresh mass), and significantly improved shoot quality were achieved at 30 μmol·m-2·s-1 irradiance when both iron chelate formulations were combined (each at a 100 μM concentration) in the proliferation medium. Chemical names used: benzylamino purine (BA); ferric disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate or FeNa2EDTA (FeEDTA); ferric monosodium ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetate), (FeNaEDDHA) or Sequestrene 138Fe (FeEDDHA); indoleacetic acid (IAA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).