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commodities. This exposure may increase the risk of contamination by various spore-forming bacteria that are plant or human pathogens, such as Bacillus cereus , a common cause of food-borne illness. Research on the efficacy of sanitizer treatments in

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and decreasing the CO 2 content of soil in the root region. After that, the soil respiration intensity of the aeration treatment increased rapidly; this result is consistent with Hou et al. (2016) . Soil bacteria are an important component of soil

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., 2012 ; Lynch and Whipps, 1990 ). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are free-living, soil-borne bacteria that colonize the rhizosphere and, when applied to crops, enhance the growth of plants. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria may enhance plant

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and Tahardi, 1993 ), P-deficient soils ( Sanni, 1981 ), or both ( Fisher and Jayachandran, 2008 ; Janos, 1977 ). A number of the commercial products being marketed for palms also contain beneficial fungi other than AM fungi, beneficial bacteria, humic

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identified beneficial bacteria that significantly suppressed powdery mildew disease severity in flowering dogwood ( Mmbaga and Sauvé, 2009 ; Mmbaga et al., 2008 , 2016 ). Some BCAs applied on the roots suppressed powdery mildew on dogwood foliage ( Mmbaga

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Graça and Korsten, 2004 ; Gottwald, 2010 ). It is primarily vectored by the asian citrus psyllid [ACP ( Diaphorina citri )] ( Capoor et al., 1967 ). The bacteria and insect vector are now found in most citrus-growing regions, including the United States

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), and inhibit fungi or bacteria ( Bautista-Baños et al. 2006 ; Chen et al. 2009 ; Rabea et al. 2003 ). Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote the flowering of carnations ‘Pure Red’ ( Satoh et al. 2013 ). Alginate oligosaccharides enhance resistance to

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Abstract

Pseudomonas syringae van Hall, an ice nucleation active (INA) bacterium, increased frost susceptibility of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) when sprayed on leaves prior to low temperature stress. Tomato and soybean plants inoculated with INA bacteria were nucleated and frozen at −4° and −5°C respectively. Control plants that were free of INA bacteria supercooled and survived to −8°. A threshold INA bacterial concentration of about 4 × 105 cells/ml was necessary for ice nucleation. Ice nucleating active bacteria preconditioned at 2° showed a marked increase in efficiency of ice nucleation. Preconditioned INA bacteria had ice nucleation temperatures 5° higher than INA bacteria held at 21°.

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limit the risks associated with pathogenic microorganisms present in the sludge. Sludge may contain pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa along with other parasitic helminths, which are hazardous to the health of humans, animals, and plants ( Pescod

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concentrations found in hydroponic systems ( Rakocy, 1997 ). The aquaponic nitrogen (N) cycle ( Fig. 1 ) is of particular interest. Fish produce ammonia (NH 3 ), some of which ionizes in water to form ammonium (NH 4 + ). Nitrifying bacteria in biofilters convert

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