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Chae Shin Lim, Seong Mo Kang, Jeoung Lai Cho and Kenneth C. Gross

( Scandalios, 1993 ). Superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) can efficiently detoxify AOS ( Asada, 1994 ). On the other hand, some antioxidant molecules such as ascorbic acid, glutathione, α

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Huiying Li, Hongji Luo, Deying Li, Tao Hu and Jinmin Fu

antioxidant enzymes including SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), GR, and CAT were found in coontail ( Ceratophyllum demersum ) when exposed to Pb ( Mishra et al., 2006 ). On the contrary, there were also reports indicating decreased

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Elvia Hernández-Gómez, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Ana M. Castillo-González, María T. Colinas-León, Donita L. Cartmill, Andrew D. Cartmill and R. Hugo Lira-Saldívar

sampled at experiment termination. Lipid peroxidation was measured by quantifying the concentration of malondialdehyde using the thiobarbituric acid method ( Kuk et al., 2003 ). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase activity were determined

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Misael O. Vega-García, Greici López-Espinoza, Jeanett Chávez Ontiveros, José J. Caro-Corrales, Francisco Delgado Vargas and José A. López-Valenzuela

, 1999 ), leading to inactivation of enzymes, lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, and DNA damage ( Foyer and Noctor, 2005 ). Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is one of the main enzymes involved in detoxification of H 2 O 2 , and its overexpression in

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Haiyan Zhang

developed different strategies to regulate their intracellular ROS concentrations by scavenging of ROS. Major ROS scavenging enzymes include SOD, peroxidase (POD), CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Therefore, enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes

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Masoud Arghavani, Mohsen Kafi, Mesbah Babalar, Roohangiz Naderi, Md. Anamul Hoque and Yoshiyoki Murata

, 0.1 g of leaves were frozen in liquid nitrogen and then ground in 3 mL of buffer (for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase: 71.4 m m KH 2 PO 4 buffer pH 7.0; for catalase: 62.5 m m Tris-base buffer pH 8.0; and for glutathione

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Chuanhao Chen, Shaoyun Lu, Youguang Chen, Zhongcheng Wang, Yuejing Niu and Zhenfei Guo

Kirkham, 1994 ). The antioxidant defense system consists of several antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and some nonenzyme antioxidants such as ascorbic acid

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Ying Qu, Xue Bai, Yajun Zhu, Rui Qi, Geng Tian, Yang Wang, Yonghua Li and Kaiming Zhang

)] on activities of superoxide dismutase [SOD ( A )], catalase [CAT ( B )], monodehydroascorbate reductase [MDHAR ( C )], dehydroascorbate reductase [DHAR ( D )], ascorbate peroxidase [APX ( E )], and glutathione reductase [GR ( F )] in leaves of

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Cibele Mantovani, Jonas Pereira de Souza Júnior, Renato de Mello Prado and Kathia Fernandes Lopes Pivetta

to proteins, and formation of chlorophyll and carotene isomers in Arabidopsis thalina plants. These alterations can be partially attributed to the inactivation of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, both from the peroxidase enzyme family, resulting

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Ningguang Dong, Jianxun Qi, Yuanfa Li, Yonghao Chen and Yanbin Hao

.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT), and some low molecular weight nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) ( Liu et al., 2010 ). Membranes are the