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K.L. Hensler, B.S. Baldwin, and J.M. Goatley Jr.

A truly soilless turfgrass sod may be produced on kenaf-based (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiber mat that offers the integrity of field-cut sod without the use of mineral soil growing medium. This research was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing warm-season turfgrass sod on such a biodegradable organic mat. Seeded turfgrass plots contained 4.9 lb/1000 ft2 (24 g.m−2) of pure live seed planted on a 66-lb/1000 ft2 (325-g.m−2) organic fiber mat carrier placed atop either 66- or 132-lb/1000 ft2 (325- or 650-g.m−2) organic fiber mats. In an experiment using vegetative material, stolons were applied at rates of 16.4 ft3/1000 ft2 (0.82 L.m−2) over 132- or 198-lb/1000 ft2 (650- or 975-g.m−2) organic fiber mats and covered with a rayon scrim. All plots were placed on 6-mil black plastic. Nitrogen was applied at 0.9 lb/1000 ft2 (4.4 g.m−2) weekly in addition to a monthly micronutrient application. Bermudagrass (Cynodon σππ.) had quicker establishment than other grasses in the study, with stolonized and seeded plots achieving ≈100% coverage by 9 weeks in 1995 and 6 weeks in 1996, respectively. By 15 weeks after planting in 1995, the plot coverage ratings for seeded centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack. `Common'] and all stolonized grass plots of centipedegrass, zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud. `Meyer'), and St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze `Raleigh'] were 91% or higher. The results were much less favorable in 1996 than 1995 due to a later planting date and an irrigation failure.

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J.M. Goatley Jr., V.L. Maddox, and K.L. Hensler

Bermudagrass turfs in the southern United States often receive late growing season applications of nitrogen (N) in order to sustain turfgrass color prior to dormancy, even though such applications might increase winterkill potential. Yearly research trials were initiated in the last week of Sept. 1989 to 1991 at Mississippi State Univ. to evaluate fall and spring color responses and rhizome levels of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) of `Tiflawn' and Arizona (AZ) Common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.)] treated with various N sources delivering N at 98 kg·ha-1 in a single application. The fertilizers were ammonium nitrate (AN), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), a natural organic (`Milorganite', NO), isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), ureaformaldehyde (UF), and methylene urea (MU). Color responses from N fertilization were most prominent in the fall except when there was an early frost event in Oct. 1990. The most rapid greening response and highest color ratings were consistently observed for the water-soluble AN. Of the slow-release sources, SCU, MU, and IBDU provided color responses as long as temperatures remained warm enough to promote bermudagrass growth. The NO source provided an unexpected, significant greening response in Oct. 1989 and 1991 on `Tiflawn', but not on AZ Common. The UF consistently provided the lowest color ratings. There were virtually no differences in TNC levels between N treatments for either grass. At no time was there any indication that N fertilization increased bermudagrass winterkill potential; to the contrary, the predominant responses were better fall and spring color than the nontreated control.

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Haibo Liu

; the Center of Turfgrass Science at Rutgers for providing the facilities and funding for this project; the seed supplies from the NTEP program and Simplot (Jacklin Seed); Dave Starner (Agricultural Experiment Station of Virginia Polytech. & State

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Neil L. Heckman, Garald L. Horst, and Roch E. Gaussoin

Buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] is a warm-season perennial grass native to the North American Great Plains region and has been used as a low-maintenance turfgrass. Turf-type buffalograsses are available and are commonly used on nonirrigated land. Our objectives were to determine the deepest planting depth of burrs that would allow acceptable emergence, and to evaluate planting depth effects on buffalograss seedling morphology. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted in Fall 2000. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4 replications and a 3 (cultivar) × 6 (planting depth) factorial treatment arrangement. Results showed that buffalograss emergence decreased as planting depth increased. All cultivars had <10% total emergence at planting depths >50 mm. Emergence rate indices were greatest when planting depth was 13 mm and were significantly lower at planting depths of 51 and 76 mm. Average coleoptile length was 11 mm. Coleoptile length was similar between all planting depths except for the 13 mm depth which resulted in 9-mm-long coleoptile. Subcoleoptile internode length increased with planting depth up to 38 mm. Planting depths deeper than 38 mm did not significantly increase subcoleoptile internode length.

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Bekele G. Abeyo, Robert C. Shearman, Roch E. Gaussoin, Leonard A. Wit, Desalegn D. Serba, and Ugur Bilgili

buffalograss turf, especially in northern climates and intensively used turf sites, like golf course fairways and sports fields ( Shearman et al., 2004 ). Overseeding cool-season grasses into warm-season grasses to temporarily extend turfgrass performance in

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Chengyan Yue, Jingjing Wang, Eric Watkins, Yiqun Xie, Shashi Shekhar, Stacy A. Bonos, Aaron Patton, Kevin Morris, and Kristine Moncada

options for a specific site based on site conditions, whereas those who manage turfgrass in the southern United States cared less about this feature. This likely is because most warm-season turfgrasses used in the southern United States are established

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Songul Severmutlu, Nedim Mutlu, Ercan Gurbuz, Osman Gulsen, Murat Hocagil, Osman Karaguzel, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Robert C. Shearman, and Rock E. Gaussoin

opportunity for water conservation when warm-season turfgrass species were used under Mediterranean-like climate in Australia, but data on drought resistance and water conservation are lacking for the Mediterranean region. Bermudagrass, buffalograss

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Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm, and Jerry B. Sartain

article to summarize these recommendations for all states. An example of recommendations for warm-season turfgrass can be found for Florida ( Sartain, 2007 ) and a recent example for cool-season turfgrass is provided for Wisconsin ( Kussow et al., 2011

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William D. Haselbauer, Adam W. Thoms, John C. Sorochan, James T. Brosnan, Brian M. Schwartz, and Wayne W. Hanna

warm-season turfgrasses and the summers are too warm for the cool-season turfgrasses ( Christians, 1998 )] because of its recuperative potential and ability to tolerate high temperature extremes during summer ( McCarty et al., 2005 ). Turfgrass breeders

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Karl Guillard and John C. Inguagiato

extracts on cool-season turfgrass responses. Mature turf is at least 1 year’s growth past seeding. The Normalized Difference Vegetative Index is commonly used as an indirect, but quantitative, measure of turfgrass green color and visual quality or