Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 3,131 items for :

  • vegetable production x
Clear All
Authors: and

Many producers who have used conventional production methods for vegetables, and who want to convert to organic production, will have to pass through a 3-year transition period before their land can be qualified for organic certification. This transition can produce unique challenges. Use of several amendments has received interest for inclusion in organic production. How these affect vegetable production during the transition period was examined. Land was taken from perennial pasture and converted to production of the vegetables: bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), cv. Jupiter; processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), cv. Earli Pik; and sweet corn (Zea mays L.), cv. Incredible (se endosperm genotype) using organic materials and methods with comparison made to production using conventional methods. Conventional and transition to organic portions of the field were separated by 25 m with the buffer zone planted with the same sweet corn cultivar used in the experimental plots and minimally maintained by addition of organic fertilizer. To the organic portion of the field, three levels of humates (0, 112, and 224 kg·ha–1) and three levels of corn gluten meal (0, 448, and 896 kg·ha–1) were applied in nine combinations. Yields for all crops were determined for all years. In the first year, bell pepper yields for plants under conventional production were higher than for the plants in the transition plots. In the remaining 2 years, bell pepper yields were similar under the two production systems. In the first 2 years, cucumber yields for plants under conventional production were higher than for the plants under transition to organic production. In the last year, cucumber yields were similar under the two production systems. In all years, sweet corn yields for plants under conventional production were higher than for plants under transition to organic production. Humates and corn gluten meal did not benefit yields of crops. An economic analysis comparing yields, prices, and costs of production of the crops under conventional and the transition to organic indicated that conventional practices generally provided more net revenue than did transition to organic production. Net revenue for the three species under the transition to organic for the 3 years was $2749 for three hectares. Net revenue for the three crops under conventional production for 3 years was $61,821, a difference of $59,072. Costs, yield, and prices will have to be considered when decisions are made concerning the adoption of organic practices.

Free access

Abstract

A market-based farming systems research approach was used to analyze the vegetable production system for direct-to-consumer retail and wholesale marketing at the Dallas Farmers’ Market. The majority of farms produced 3–10 different vegetables for a harvest and marketing season of 4 months or more per year, irrespective of their size of operation or status as a full or part-time farmer. Watermelon, cantaloupe, sweet potato, squash, tomato, and southern pea were most commonly produced. Extensive use of leased land supported the production system by allowing land rotation or specific soil type selection. From this survey, a profile of the typical production unit was developed for use in research and extension.

Open Access

Sustainable production systems are characterized as systems that can be physically and biologically maintained in perpetuity, can avoid adverse environmental and health problems, and can be economically profitable. Organic vegetable production systems are one example of sustainable farming enterprises. In California, organic production and postharvest handling techniques are closely defined by legislation. Of the several grower groups representing organic farmers in the state, the California Certified Organic Farmers is the largest, representing 382 growers that farmed a total area of 10,375 ha in 1988. Of these, 200 growers are vegetable producers. Another organization active among organic growers in California, as well as Mexico, Central American countries, and the Caribbean, is the Organic Crop Improvement Association. Marketing organizations such as the Nutri-Clean Program, which tests produce for pesticide residues and certifies specific residue standards, and the Organic Market News and Information Service facilitate the sale of organic produce in California. Cultural practice information for organic vegetable production is difficult to find, particularly techniques that would allow a grower to switch from conventional to organic production. University researchers and extension workers have so far been of little help, although the Univ. of California Sustainability Program at Davis is beginning research and education activities. Funding for these activities is inadequate, and the program is understaffed. There is need for long-term, interdisciplinary, on-farm studies to study organic production techniques in a realistic setting. At present, the reward system in place in land-grant institutions offers little encouragement to researchers to engage in this kind of work. There are formidable obstacles to increasing the use of organic materials for crop fertilization. The nutrient content of the state's manure and organic waste supplies is probably insufficient to meet the fertility needs of California's crops. In addition, since the majority of land currently producing vegetable crops in California is leased, long-term soil fertility investments are a risky undertaking.

Free access

Production and harvesting systems for processing vegetables have been highly mechanized, however, field efficiencies are generally low, and high field losses and fruit damage continue to limit profits for several crops. By comparison, the number of fresh market crops currently machine harvested is small, and research to develop new harvesting technology for these crops is limited. Current mechanization research includes improvements to existing production systems, development of harvesters for crops currently hand-harvested, and the integration of new technologies into current (and future) production systems. Mechanical harvester-based production systems are evolving that reduce field losses and fruit damage, improve recovery, and decrease the foreign materials in the harvested product. However, improved cultural production systems and crop varieties that are adapted for once-over machine harvest are needed. An integrated approach in which crop characteristics along with planting, cultivating, and harvesting techniques are considered will be necessary to develop profitable and highly efficient alternatives to hand-harvest production. The integration of new technologies including differential global positioning systems (DGPS), automatic machine guidance, and computer-based vision systems offers significant performance benefits, and is a substantial component of current vegetable production and harvesting research in the U.S. In time, as the costs of these technologies decline, commercial adoption of these new methods is expected to increase.

Full access

Using an intensive vegetable production system of grain-strip windbreaks, plastic-mulch-covered planting be& installed with drip irrigation tubing, and fertigation through the drip system, >67,000 lb/acre (75,000 kg·ha-1) of seedless watermelons were produced. A floating row cover increased the yield by 14,000 lb/acre (16,380 kg·ha-1) by increasing earliness. The row cover also improved initial transplant survival. Earliness and the additional income generated from improved production should provide economic justification to growers considering floating row covers.

Free access

Vegetable soybeans (Glycine max), the same species as field-dried soybeans, have similar production requirements and good market potential for commercial producers in upper midwestern United States. Five vegetable soybean cultivars were tested for yield and quality characteristics and to assess the necessity of field irrigation during 2003 and 2004 in North Dakota. Cultivars of different maturity dates were evaluated for stand densities, pod production, seed weight, and marketable yield. Total marketable yields varied between the years, ranging from 5773 to 10,118 lb/acre. Lower yields in 2003 were attributed to significantly lower population stands caused by poor germination conditions. `Envy', the earliest maturing cultivar, produced a significantly smaller seed size, while `Sayamusume' produced a greater seed size than the other cultivars both years. `Butterbean', `IA1010', and `IA2062' yielded greater percentages of three-bean pods than the other two cultivars each growing season. Irrigation did not increase the marketable pod yield or the quality variables examined each season; thus it appears that rainfall during the growing season may be adequate for vegetable soybean production in this region.

Full access

A preliminary technical study has been carried out on vegetable production in Kuwait after liberation from Iraqi occupation. These assessment observations and data have been compared with pre-invasion published and unpublished data. The extent of damage and devastation to the status and needs, as well as the opportunities existing in this sub-sector, have been preliminarily described and documented. While the harshness of the environment, the scarcity of the water, the level of the temperatures, and the mobility of the sand have always been formidable obstacles here to vegetable production productivities, quantities produced, and qualities yielded, they now serve to exaggerate the adverse impact of this crisis on this sub-sector. Open fields, and their support systems, have been severely disrupted, protected environmental units have been dismantled, and irrigation systems have been destroyed, labor dissipated, and essential supplies pillaged. Opportunities now appear to abound for greenhouse and hydroponic advanced technologies in reconstructing and expanding Kuwait's vegetable production. Costs need to be balanced against value of products produced.

Free access

Abstract

Many of the world's desert areas remain uninhabited but could be made productive, even attractive for settlement, if certain necessities were present. One such necessity is food. If crops are to be grown, water for irrigation and an environment conducive to good crop production are needed. Water is not available in most desert regions and must be provided together with the required power to pump this water from wells and into the area of crop production. The daily temperatures in most desert areas are adequate for crop production during most months of the year, but such hazards as sandstorms and insect invasions often make them undesirable for vegetable production; and providing water for irrigation is expensive. Experiments now are being conducted by the Universities of Arizona and Sonora in the growing of vegetables in controlled-environment, air-inflated greenhouses. The experimental unit is located in Puerto Penasco, Sonora, Mexico, on the east coast of the Gulf of California. The following are procedures and results obtained to date from tests which have been in progress since October 1968 (Fig. 1, 2).

Open Access

Research results are presented from a multi-year study on vegetable production in southern Georgia that compared two low-input production systems to the conventional rye cover crop technology. The low-input systems use beneficial insect principles as a substitute for conventional pesticide controls, but pesticides are used if needed. Preliminary results from the low-input systems using crimson and subterranean clovers indicate that crimson clover produces better yields and can “catch up” to the conventional rye system. The higher yields of the rye technology can be offset by the cost reductions associated with the low-input technologies. Production budgets were developed for 3 years of eggplant and 2 years of fresh-market tomato and bell pepper to reveal expected net returns under the low-input and conventional systems.

Free access

12 ORAL SESSION 1 (Abstr. 001-008) Vegetables: Cover Crops/Culture and Management

Free access