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Growth responses during nursery production in 2.2- and 11.4-liter plastic containers to conventional and alternative media of four species of small trees of limited availability for potential use in urban sites in the southwest United States (Acacia wrightii, Chilopsis linearis, × Chitalpa tashkentensis, and Rhus lanceolata) were compared to that of a commercially available small tree (Fraxinus velutina). Four media combinations, at 3:1 (v/v) of bark: sand (conventional), bark: coconut coir pith, kenaf stalk core: peatmoss, and kenaf: coir, with three fertilizer concentrations (3.6, 7.2, and 10.7 kg·m–3 of 18N–2.6P–10K Osmocote) were tested with each species. All species exhibited commercially acceptable growth (80 to 167 cm mean heights in 11.4-liter containers in 240 days) with near 100% survival in most media and fertilizer combinations with the following exceptions: shoot extension of Rhus lanceolata was reduced by 20 to 30 cm and survival by 20% to 50% in kenaf media with high fertility rates; and Acacia wrightii had acceptable shoot extension but exhibited poor trunk diameter growth across media relative to the other species. Slightreductions in growth of some species were noted with kenaf media and slight increases with coconut coir, but differences were not likely of commercial significance. Kenaf media was significantly lighter (20% to 80%) than bark media, but had elevated initial electrical conductivity (EC) and shrank to 60% to 70% of its initial volume after 240 days. Kenaf: peatmoss media had a slightly lower mean pH (6.34) compared to the other media (pH 6.41–6.49).

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In a 1995 Regional Plan Association poll, two key factors of an acceptable quality of life were safe streets and access to greenery or open spaces ( Trust for Public Land, 2008 ). Residents of urban environments with higher concentrations of green

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Plants in the urban environment have many functions such as modulating the microclimate, reducing air and noise pollution, providing a habitat for urban wildlife in addition to their aesthetic values. Landscape designers may have choices in

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placed on their urban landscapes was highlighted to determine if there was a relationship between landscape benefits and irrigation and fertilization best practices. The research described in this manuscript was conducted as a possible foundation to

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How to manage nutrients and irrigation have been major concerns for the turfgrass and ornamental industry in recent decades, especially within densely populated urban areas ( Beard and Green, 1994 ; Carey et al., 2012 ; Hochmuth et al., 2012 ). It

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to its showy, scented flowers; wide geographic distribution; and lace bug resistance ( Galle, 1967 ; Wang et al., 1998 ). It is one of the first native azaleas to bloom and could benefit native pollinators in urban landscapes in early spring ( Mader

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Abstract

When Dutch elm disease (DED) was discovered in the U. S. in the early 1930's, programs were initiated to protect susceptible elms and to develop resistant elms for future use. Since the American elm, Ulmus americana L., was the most extensively planted species, seed collections were made throughout North America to find disease-resistant individuals. This search had only limited success and subsequent emphasis was placed on chemical control.

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In a survey, residents of the largest metropolitan areas in the continental United States rated the social, environmental, and practical benefits from trees in urban areas highly. They ranked the ability of trees to shade and cool surroundings highest. The potential of trees to help people feel calmer was ranked second highest. Survey respondents were not very concerned about potential problems with trees in cities, and felt that trees should be planted in cities regardless of any annoyance. Practical problems with trees, such as causing allergies, were bigger concerns than were financial issues. Responses varied slightly, based on childhood background and current demographic factors. For example, people who grew up with a garden near their home or actively worked with plants during childhood were more likely to appreciate the potential benefits of trees than were those who did not have such early experiences. People who strongly agreed that trees were important to their quality of life and those who did not strongly agree ranked the tree benefits and problems similarly, however. Those who strongly agreed that trees were important to their quality of life rated the benefits of trees more highly than people who did not strongly agree.

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Two inch caliper Acer rubrum, Quercus phellos, and Platanus occidentalis were planted March 26, 1990, into 8' × 8' planting holes that were lined with either Typar Biobarrier, Dewitt Pro-5 Weed Barrier or left unlined as a control. There has been little or no root penetration beyond the Biobarrier for the 3 tree species during the first 3 years of this study. At the end of 1990, the control and the Dewitt Pro-5 had similar root penetration numbers. By the end of 1991, the Dewitt Pro-5 had greater root penetration than did the control for A. rubrun. Root penetration of Dewitt Pro-5 and the control treatment was similar for Q. phellos and P. occidentalis. There were no differences in root penetration for Dewitt Pro-5 and the control in 1992 for any species. There were no differences in height for any tree species following the 1990 or 1991 growing seasons and no difference following the 1992 growing season for A. rubrum and Q. phellos. The control treatment had the grearest height for P. occidentalis in 1992. There were no differences in caliper due to root control treatment for the 3 species during the first 3 years of this study.

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