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Development of improved cultivars through conventional hybridization in mandarins has been hampered by several characteristics of their reproductive biology, mainly apomixis (nucellar polyembryony), sexual incompatibility, and long juvenility

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cultivars. A triploid breeding program has been carried out in Spain since 1996 based on sexual hybridization, embryo rescue, and ploidy analysis by flow cytometry ( Navarro et al., 2002 ). The objective is to produce new high–quality, late-season and

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classified in Lauraceae. The species is dioecious, and anthesis precedes leafing out. Reproduction is both sexual (seeds) and asexual (rhizomes). Although the natural range for L . melissifolia extends from the LMAV (specifically, Arkansas, Mississippi

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, a single dominant locus regulates the balance between sexual and asexual plant reproduction in cultivated strawberry J. Expt. Bot. 64 1837 1848 Haymes, K.M. Henken, B. Davis, T.M. Van de Weg, W.E. 1997 Identification of RAPD markers linked to a

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hybridization. Consequently, the parental reproductive systems and the sexual reproduction process have been studied in many plants, such as Dendranthema grandiflorum , Phaseolus vulgaris , Nelumbo nucifera , Fragaria ananssa , and Jasminum sambac ( Deng

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long-lived species, which in Chile displays a wide geographic distribution (lat. 35°S to 47°S) but with populations also found on the Pacific coast of North America and in Hawaii. Its mode of reproduction is asexual (stolons) and sexual. It is an

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Aphrodite ( Huang and Lee, 2010 ) and Dendrobium officinale ( Chen et al., 2016 ). Unlike traditional tissue cultures, an aseptic germination system involves sexual reproduction under sterile conditions, which make it possible to achieve large

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appears to be associated with polyploidy, as the tetraploids and triploids are frequently obligate or rarely facultative apomicts, while diploid progeny are sexually derived ( Bartish et al., 2001 ; Czapik, 1996 ; Hjelmqvist, 1962 ; Nybom and Bartish

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Prerequisites for successful sexual reproduction in higher plants include a sequence of critical interactions occurring between pollen and stigmatic surfaces. The function of the stigma is to capture pollen, facilitate pollen hydration, and support

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., 2005b ; Smith et al., 2009 ). Literature Cited Akerberg, E. 1939 Apomictic and sexual seed formation in Poa pratensis L Hereditas 25 359 370 Bara, R.F. Dickson, W.K. Murphy, J.A. Smith, D.A. Funk, C.R. 1993 Performance of kentucky bluegrass cultivars

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