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structure, increase soil organic matter (SOM) and fertility, retain moisture, prevent leaching of nutrients, decrease soil density, suppress weeds, increase population of beneficial insects, control erosion, manage plant-parasitic nematodes, increase soil

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Udipsamment). The specific soil texture was 90% sand, 3% silt, and 7% clay, determined using the hydrometer method ( Bouyoucos, 1962 ). Organic matter was 0.9%, determined by the weight loss-on-ignition method ( Shulte and Hopkins, 1996 ). The pH was 6

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83.3576°W) in 2016 and 2017. Soils at this site are categorized as a well-drained acidic [pH 6.37 (2016) and 6.47 (2017)], Cecil sandy loam soil [CYB2 ( USDA, 1968 )] with ≈5% organic matter. The project site has been operated as a noncertified

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always be an available option. Additional cultivations can decrease soil organic matter ( Dick, 1983 ; Gallaher and Ferrer, 1987 ; Johnson, 1986 ) and soil water holding capacity ( Johnson, 1986 ), increase soil erosion ( Logan et al., 1991 ; McDowell

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amendments to improve their soil quality. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (2000) suggests a soil pH of 6.5 or higher to reduce the availability of copper to plants consumed by humans and animals. Additionally, soils with organic matter content more than

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Suitable orchard floor management strategies in organic apple orchards that augment soil organic matter and maintain tree performance Plant Soil 378 325 335 10.1007/s11104-014-2034-8 Organic Materials Research Institute 2014 OMRI products list. 1 Mar. 2013

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, microbial activity, and organic matter incorporation ( Richard, 2004 ). Combining organic nutrient sources such as compost with rowcovers can also increase yields by contributing to vegetative plant growth characteristics ( Nair and Ngouajio, 2010 ). The

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be as much as a 30% difference in total N mineralization of organic matter depending on soil texture ( Griffin et al., 2002 ). Nitrogen mineralization dynamics are difficult to capture in field settings. This study aimed to understand the

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at the upper end of the recommended range for blackberry (5.6 to 6.5) ( Hart et al., 2006 ) for all treatments in 2011, but by 2012, the pH had declined to the lower end of the range ( Table 3 ). The soil organic matter content was unaffected by

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al., 2011b ; Niwa et al., 2007 ) and low organic matter in soils ( Colhoun, 1952 , 1953 ). However, high levels of clubroot can occur in soils with organic matter of 60% or higher ( McDonald and Westerveld, 2008 ). Several strategies have been

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