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decertified farmers to remain committed to organic farming. Although California agriculture captures most of the certified organic food production, there are important organic industries in other states that are likely to face different challenges. It is

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Funding was received from the New Zealand Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry via allocation of a Sustainable Farming Fund grant to HortResearch, Canterbury Commercial Organic Growers, and Rolleston Prison, Department of Corrections. Thanks to the

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Organic Farming Research Foundation, USDA-CSREES NE-SARE Program, and Massachusetts State IPM funds. Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named or criticism of similar ones not named. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed

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A pound of organic heirloom tomatoes costs $5 at the Larimer County Farmers’ Market in Fort Collins, CO. Nonorganic heirlooms range from $2–6.50/lb, whereas other tomatoes at the local market, both organic and noncertified, range from $3–5/lb

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In 2016, sweetpotato was the fifth most valuable organic vegetable crop in the United States, generating $101 million in annual sales [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2017 ]. U.S. sweetpotato production is largely concentrated among four

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Fertilizer costs and increased awareness of non-point source pollution run-off amplify the pressures on farm economics. Intensive farming operations provided the impetus for our study using effluent from anaerobic thermophilically digested poultry litter as a potential fertilizer. Five fertilizer treatments were used: unfertilized control, pelletized municipal sludge, commercial crop specific products, 1x digested solids and 2x digested solids. All four applications of fertilizer were equalized for nitrogen based on commercial product recommendations. Beds treated with 2x solids accumulated higher percentage of organic matter over the 5-year period. A statistically significant increase in phosphorus was found in the solids beds in 2003. Beds with 2x solids showed statistical significance for Mg, Zn and Cu. Fertilizer trials included blueberries, tomatoes, potatoes, and sweet corn. Potato fresh weight was not significantly different in 2002 or 2003, but was in 2001. Tomato fruit number was not significantly different in 2001 or 2003, but was in 2002. Tomato fresh weight for 2x solids was not significantly different from the commercial or pelletized sludge treatments in 2002 and 2003 suggesting that tomato may discriminate between treatments. Commercial and pelletized sludge fertilizers were statistically better for sweet corn fresh ear weight and number of ears in 2002 and 2003. Blueberry yields were not significantly different between treatments for any year. As this is a perennial crop, it may be several years before a significant difference is observed. While not a total solution, our research shows the effectiveness of digested poultry litter as part of a nutrient management program; making livestock residuals a nutrient resource which offers the potential for organic use.

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Farming Research Foundation grow herbs, floriculture, ornamental, or greenhouse products, mushrooms, or honey ( Walz, 2004 ). Thus far, organic herbs and flowers have been sold primarily through the internet, community-supported agriculture groups (CSAs

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Concern for the environment has focussed attention on the need for environmentally sound, yet economically profitable, farming practices. A hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L. Roth.) organic mulch system for fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production provides environmental benefits by enhancing the soil and reducing the need for fertilizer and herbicide inputs and is more profitable than conventional practices. Tomato field trials over 3 years at the Beltsville (Md.) Agricultural Research Center compared the hairy vetch mulch system with black polyethylene mulch and bare ground (no mulch). Using partial budget analysis in a farm context, the hairy vetch mulch treatment was more profitable in all years under all market and yield adjustment scenarios. The vetch mulch system also was the preferred system for a risk-averse grower, according to a safety-first criterion. The combination of environmental benefits and the economic benefits to the grower make the hairy vetch mulch system an attractive alternative for producing fresh-market tomatoes in the Mid-Atlantic and parts of northeastern United States.

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A survey was administered to assess plant characteristics that consumers consider important when selecting landscape plants for purchase. Visitors to home and garden shows in Knoxville and Nashville, Tenn.; Detroit, Mich.; and Jackson, Miss., completed 610 questionnaires. Respondents also indicated their familiarity with integrated pest management (IPM) concepts, pest control philosophy, recognition of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) pests and diseases, including dogwood powdery mildew (Microsphaera pulchra), and willingness-to-pay a price differential for a powdery-mildew-resistant flowering dogwood. Fewer than half of the respondents in any city indicated familiarity with IPM, although they were familiar with organic farming and pest scouting components of an IPM program. Willingness-to-pay was relatively consistent across all four locations. The uniformity of average tree premiums, which ranged from $11.87 in Jackson to $16.38 in Detroit, supports the proposition that customers are willing to pay a substantially higher price for a landscape tree that will maintain a healthier appearance without the use of chemical sprays. Factors affecting consumer demand for landscape nursery products and services can be paired with consumer awareness of IPM terminology and practices to create an effective market strategy for newly developed powdery-mildew-resistant dogwood cultivars.

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