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are often larger after chromosome doubling ( Campos et al., 2009 ; Wu et al., 2012 ; Ye et al., 2010 ). However, very little information has been available on the effects of increasing ploidy level on other attributes of fruit quality considered

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some years, the cream white flesh contains red pigment flecks in the outer flesh, particularly on the sun-exposed side of the fruit, but there is little or no red in the flesh at the pit (the pit itself is red). Flesh texture is smooth, without strings

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In January, 1990, a team of U.S. and Chilean scientists collected native and cultivated Fragaria from central and southern Chile. During the course of this expedition, 363 new accessions of Fragaria were collected. Approximately 2,500 plants of 250 clones were collected from 66 sites in 19 different areas, and 113 seedlots (estimated at over 100,000 seeds) were obtained.

Plants were collected from a wide range of habitats, and considerable variability was observed in vegetative and reproductive characteristics. Fruit were round to conical in shape, deep red to white in color, soft to moderately firm, with soluble solids ranging from 5-18%, dull to glossy skin, bland to strong flavor, low to very high aromatics, and difficult to moderately easy capping. Fruit size in situ approached 4 g, while fruit larger than 12 g were found under cultivated conditions. Strawberry aphids (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii) were found on plants in situ and under cultivation. Little or no evidence of other pests were observed on clones collected in situ.

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‘Moutere’ ( Fig. 1 ) is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar from The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Limited (HortResearch). ‘Moutere’ produces high yields of attractive large-sized fruit

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Abstract

‘Starking Red Delicious’ trees 15 years old on seedling rootstocks were fertilized with 5 levels of N as ammonium nitrate from 0.165 to 3.0 lb. per tree applied in a narrow band from 1961 to 1966 and cultivated at a shallow depth with a rotavator each year in March and May, March alone, or not at all.

Evaluation of fruit quality at harvest time showed that there was no significant effect of N level or cultivation treatments on fruit color. Pressure test was reduced by the higher N treatments but soluble solids concentration was highest at the medium N applications. Titratable acidity was reduced by the higher N treatments but cultivation treatments had no effect. Flesh color of the fruit was the most sensitive of several tests made, higher N and more cultivation causing greener flesh. In tests at the end of storage life, pressure test and titratable acidity were still reduced by the higher N treatments. There was little effect on soluble solids, per cent rots or storage scald. Again, cultivation treatments had no effect.

There was very little difference in yield among the N treatments except at the lowest levels of 0.5 and 0.165 lb. This effect was most marked with no cultivation. The N content of the leaves was increased by the N treatments from approximately 2.1% at the lowest level to approximately 2.4% at the highest level. There was no effect on terminal length or trunk circumference.

It was shown that grass sod with or without moderate cultivation could largely override the effect of a very wide range of N levels. There was a deleterious effect only at very low N levels combined with no cultivation.

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. Martinelli, F. Tagliani, D. Azzolini, P. Castagnoli, and A. Castagnoli. Gala × A3-7; selected 2004; USPP 24,550; 17 June 2014. Fruit: rounded and slightly flattened; 66 mm height × 83 mm diameter; skin smooth, with little bloom or greasiness; solid red

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% bright red, with a yellow ground color and little pubescence ( Fig. 2 ). The fruit are medium to large, ≈6 to 7 cm (≈2.5–2.8 inches) in diameter when adequately thinned. Both fruit set and size are not significantly different from those of ‘GaLa

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. Immature fruit are black and mature to red. G02C17 is a progenitor of the ornamental pepper cultivar Black Pearl ( Stommel and Griesbach, 2005 ). The respective populations were developed by crossing greenhouse-grown plants using standard emasculation

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Prohexadione-Ca (ProCa) is a relatively new plant growth regulator (PGR) that inhibits internode length in rice, small grains, and fruit trees. However, little is known about its efficacy and potential phytotoxicity on floriculture crops and how it compares to other commercially available PGR chemicals. The effects of two foliar spray applications (2 weeks apart) of ProCa (500, 1000, or 2000 ppm), paclobutrazol (30 ppm), or a tank mix of daminozide plus chlormequat (2500 and 1000 ppm, respectively) were quantified on Dianthus barbatus L. `Interspecific Dynasty Red', Ageratina altissima R. King & H. Robinson (Eupatorium rugosum) `Chocolate', Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Fangio', and Buddleia davidii Franch. `Mixed.' All plants were forced in a glass-glazed greenhouse with a constant temperature setpoint of 20 °C under a 16-h photoperiod. Two weeks after the second spray application of ProCa at 500, 1000, or 2000 ppm, plant height of Dianthus and Lilium was shorter than control plants by 56%, 60%, and 65% and by 6%, 26%, and 28%, respectively. However, ProCa bleached and reduced the size of Dianthus flowers. ProCa at 2000 ppm and daminozide plus chlormequat were effective at controlling the height of Eupatorium (64% and 53% reduction, respectively); however, leaves of Eupatorium were discolored and showed symptoms of phytotoxicity 1 week after the first ProCa application. Only daminozide plus chlormequat were effective on Buddleia. ProCa is an effective PGR for most of the crops we tested; however, its discoloration of red flowers and foliage may limit its application for commercial use.

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Abstract

Spur quality and leaf nutritional levels were determined in various canopy sections of mature spur-bound ‘Delicious’-type apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees and then various pruning and foliar urea treatments were applied to alter growth and improve fruit size. Fruit size declined from the top to the bottom of the canopy of mature spur-bound ‘Starkrimson Delicious’ trees with a similar pattern in the following criteria: leaf area/spur, spur specific leaf weight, and spur bud diameter. Spur leaf area was higher in the top center and east sections than in the top south. Spur bud diameter in the bottom third of the canopy was highest in the north and east sections, lowest in the central section, and intermediate in the south and west sections. Concentrations of leaf Mn, Zn, B, Al, and Na tended to increase from the top to the bottom of the canopy. Four urea sprays (6 g urea/liter) during the cell division period of fruit growth had little influence on spur quality, but fruit weight was increased 3 successive years. Spur pruning of 25-year-old ‘Starkrimson Delicious’ trees was not sufficient to increase shoot growth or improve spur quality, but heading back into 2-year-old wood plus spur pruning increased shoot number by 38%. Spur and heading-back pruning increased the number of shoots and total shoot leaf area of 13-year-old ‘Red Chief Delicious’ trees, and the combination of both pruning types led to the greatest increase. Heading-back of the younger trees increased leaf area of both shoots and spurs and spur pruning also increased leaf area/spur. Heading-back pruning increased average fruit weight, and the increase was positively correlated with total leaf area, shoot leaf area, and number of shoot leaves/mm of branch circumference.

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