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Victor W. Winkler

A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) voluntary program encourages the registration of pesticides that represent reduced risk to human health and the environment. A “reduced risk” designation for a pesticide depends on how its use will affect human health and the environment, pesticide resistance, and pesticide management. Prohexadione-Ca is a bioregulator being developed by BASF Corporation to control vegetative growth in apples with the effect of improving fruit production. BASF will petition the EPA to register prohexadione-Ca as a reduced risk pesticide in 1997 based on the following properties associated with its use: Prohexadione-Ca exhibits a very low mammalian toxicity and a low propensity for crop residues. Prohexadione-Ca rapidly dissipates in soil as a result of microbial metabolism and causes no detrimental ecological effects. There is no other hazard associated with the compound and no health risk for user or consumer is indicated. The use of prohexadione-Ca reduces the incidence of fireblight (and helps control this disease). The use of prohexadione-Ca reduces tree row spray volumes of other pesticides up to 25%. With these beneficial characteristics, prohexadione-Ca will fit exceptionally well into an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program, providing another “reduced risk” justification for the registration of prohexadione-Ca. The current situation of accepting prohexadione-Ca as a reduced risk pesticide and its registration status will be discussed.

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M. Babadoost, P.S. McManus, S.N. Helland and M.L. Gleason

The effectiveness of a disease-warning system and efficacy of reduced-risk fungicides for management of sooty blotch (Peltaster fructicola, Leptodontium elatius, Geastrumia polystigmatis) and flyspeck (Schizothyrium pomi) (SBFS) of apple (Malus × domestica) were evaluated in Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin in 2001 and 2002. Warning system-timed applications of the second-cover fungicide spray occurred when 175 h of leaf wetness had accumulated; wetness data were derived either from a sensor placed beneath the canopy of apple trees (on-site) or according to remotely sensed estimates. In replicated experiments, using sensor measurements as inputs to the warning system saved one to three (mean 1.8) and zero to four (mean 2.3) fungicide sprays per season in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Because remotely estimated wetness hours accumulated more rapidly than did on-site measurements, the warning system using remotely sensed wetness data saved only zero to one (mean 0.3) and zero to two (mean 0.7) sprays per season in 2001 and 2002, respectively. SBFS incidence in the integrated pest management (IPM) plots did not differ significantly from that of conventional calendar-based fungicide sprays plots in 11 of 12 site-years. When on-site wetness measurements were used in demonstration trials at 14 cooperating commercial orchards in 2001 and 2002, the SBFS warning system saved one to six (mean 2.6) and two to seven (mean 3.1) sprays per season, respectively. Incidence of SBFS in IPM plots did not differ significantly from trees managed with cooperating growers' conventional fungicide schedules in 16 of 28 siteyears. The on-site warning system was more consistently successful in Illinois and Iowa than it was in Wisconsin in both replicated experiments and in cooperating commercial orchards. The reduced-risk fungicides kresoximmethyl and trifloxystrobin provided control of SBFS equal to conventional fungicides (benomyl or thiophanatemethyl) in all trials. Potassium bicarbonate controlled SBFS less effectively than either conventional fungicides on a calendar-based or disease-warning schedule, or treatments incorporating reduced-risk fungicides.

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R. Paul Schreiner, Patricia A. Skinkis and Amy J. Dreves

growing cultivars being less affected by grape rust mite outbreaks. The pest status of the grape rust mite is unclear in some regions where infestation has not caused apparent damage to leaves or shoots ( Duso et al., 2010 ) possibly because of different

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Cynthia Haynes, Denise Ellsworth, Sarah Ellis Williams, Celeste Welty and Karen Jeannette

integrated pest management (IPM) in their own gardening practices and in their educational outreach work. IPM is “a long-standing, science-based, decision-making process that identifies and reduces risks from pests and pest management related strategies. It

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Russell W. Wallace* and Harold W. Kaufman

Over 5 million acres of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are grown annually on the Texas High Plains, providing important resources to local, state and national economies. In recent years, growers have shown interest in farm diversification in order to increase profits. After determining a market, Agri-Gold, Inc. (Olton, Texas; population 2100) successfully diversified from cotton farming by starting with 30 acres of land and 7 canna lily (Canna ×generalis) varieties, but has now grown to produce 500 acres of cannas, 350 acres of irises (Iris sp.) and 100 acres of daylilies (Hemerocallis sp.). Agri-Gold annually markets 75 varieties of cannas, and over 90 iris and 150 daylily varieties while providing important employment opportunities to 50 full-time personnel and 150 part-time seasonal laborers. Crops are grown and marketed for their reproductive structures (rhizomes, bulbs, and crowns) and sold to retail chains throughout the United States. Warm, dry, sunny days and cool nights provide a quality environment for the reproductive growth of these crops. The arid climate and well-drained soils suppress diseases that may occasionally attack, and there are few natural insects that feed on the roots and foliage. Environmentally friendly products such as composted manure (locally produced) and biologicals, as well as integrated pest management (IPM) strategies are routinely included in field management and production decisions. Recent cooperative research efforts between Agri-Gold and Texas Cooperative Extension have evaluated herbicides for control of yellow (Cyperus esculentus L.) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), as well as biological treatments for improved root growth and control of winter storage rots.

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M.L. Stratton

dedicated to one crop. The avocado book makes one want to see and collect the rest of the books in the series. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is defined clearly on page one in a handy shaded box. Several shaded boxes appear throughout the book, signaling

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Candace Bartholomew, Benjamin L. Campbell and Victoria Wallace

to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act for use on lawn, garden and ornamental sites or areas.” Integrated pest management (IPM) was defined as the “use of all available pest control techniques including judicious use of pesticides

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Matthew L. Richardson and Dewey M. Caron

We thank the Southeast Pennsylvania Integrated Pest Management Group, a large group of people who contributed to this research. In particular, we thank the leader, Dave Suchanic, a Pennsylvania State County Agricultural Extension Agent, for his

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Raymond A. Cloyd

that there is information pertaining to detection, identification, monitoring, chemical control, biological control, cultural control, host-plant resistance, and integrated pest management (IPM). The authors provide in-depth descriptions of a variety of

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Sam Marshall, David Orr, Lucy Bradley and Christopher Moorman

a result, strategies using integrated pest management (IPM) or “organic” practices have garnered increased attention as management alternatives ( Alumai et al., 2008 ). Some individual consumers and public institutions have adopted alternative lawn