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Canopy morphology of 83 pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars differed in structural, size, and form characteristics. Cluster analysis identified two to five distinct classes for canopy height and diameter and their ratio, inclination angles for both major limbs and young shoots with lower-order structures, branch types, and canopy form and volume. Cultivar-related variability in these traits may have the potential for the improvement of pecan cultivars for factors such as light interception, cooling, air movement, and fruiting; thus, there is potential for identifying the development of canopy characteristics adapted to specific site conditions or cultural/management strategies.

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Zonate leaf spot (ZLS) [Cristulariella moricola (Hino) Redhead (C. pyramidalis Waterman and Marshall)] on pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch.]—associated with unusually wet weather during June, July, and August—occurred across much of Georgia during Summer 1994. Scott–Knott cluster analysis indicated that 27 of 36 evaluated genotypes exhibited little or no field susceptibility to ZLS. `Moneymaker' exhibited the greatest susceptibility of all cultivars studied, with `Cape Fear', `Elliott', `Sumner', and `Sioux' segregating to exhibit moderate susceptibility. An evaluation of commercial orchards indicated susceptibility of major southeastern cultivars as `Desirable' < `Stuart' < `Schley' < `Moneymaker'. Control of ZLS in commercial orchards using standard fungicide spray strategies appeared to be generally ineffective.

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Nitrogen was applied at 112 kg·ha-1 to mature 'Stuart' pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees, but the radii of the application were limited to 4.6, 6.1, 7.6, or 9.1 m. Yield, nut size, percentage of kernel, tree growth, and appearance were not affected by concentrating the N application. Leaf N was highest for the largest N application radius, but all treatments supplied abundant N. Concentrating N reduced soil pH and occasionally P, K, and Ca in the 0–15 or 15–30 cm soil layers, but all three soil nutrients and Mg were medium to high after 19 years of treatments.

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Self-pollination was estimated in three Georgia pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] orchards. Selfing in two large orchards lacking an interplanted complementary pollinizer (one orchard being comprised of `Curtis' and the other `Moneymaker') was estimated to be at least 3% and 49%, respectively. A `Cheyenne' orchard containing `Stuart' as a complementary pollinizer at 5% density was estimated to have had at least 14% and 42% of ripened nuts derived from selfing in two consecutive years. These estimates suggest self-pollination may reduce yield in pecan orchards in the southeastern United States.

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A low leaf Mn concentration was detected in bearing pecan (Carya illinoinensis Wangenh. C. Koch) trees growing in an alluvial soil with an alkaline pH. Trees lacked vigor and leaves were pale in color, but there was no discernible leaf chlorosis or necrosis. Three foliar applications of MnSO4 beginning at budbreak, then twice more at 3-week intervals at rates of 0 to 3.3 kg·ha-1 of Mn increased leaf Mn concentration curvilinearly, and alleviated leaf symptoms. Results indicated that three foliar applications of MnSO4 at 2.15 kg·ha-1 of Mn plus a surfactant were adequate to correct the deficiency.

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Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch.] trees were injured by freezing temperatures in Oct. 2000, occurring about 4 weeks before the average first freeze and 6 weeks before the normal killing freeze (less than or equal to -2 °C). Nonbearing and bearing cultivars were rated for injury at four sites the following May. Nonbearing cultivars with little or no damage included `Caddo', `Clark II', `Giles', `Kanza', and `Peruque'. Those that had substantial damage included `Maramec', `Pawnee', `Oconee', `Shawnee', and `OK642'. Bearing cultivars with little or no injury included `Stuart', `GraKing', `Pawnee', `Tejas', and `Wichita'. The most severely damaged bearing cultivars were `Gratex', `Shoshoni', and `Squirrel's Delight'.

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A 4-year field study on pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] provided indirect support of the supposition held by some U.S. pecan growers that air-blast foliar sprays of potassium nitrate (KNO3) plus surfactant enhances nut yield. While these treatments did not measurably influence yield components, foliar K nutrition, or net photosynthesis, they did suppress “yellow-type” aphid populations. While air-blast sprays of water alone suppressed aphid populations, the inclusion of KNO3 plus surfactant provided an additional level of suppression.

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Analyses of stem cross sections of 97 pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] and 22 post oak (Quercus stellata Wangenh.) trees from seven sites showed tree rings were sensitive to the environment and were datable by tree, among trees within a site, among sites, and between species. Pecan had well-defined annual growth rings averaging from 1.25 to 3.36 mm in width and that varied synchronously among trees. Pecan had a mean sensitivity of about 0.3 compared to 0.4 for post oak, indicating a smaller but adequate response of pecan to reflect climatic variations and to use pecan tree rings in other dendrological studies.

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March vs. October N applications in factorial combination with two P rates were evaluated on two pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] cultivars. Leaf N concentrations were not affected by N application time. However, yield of `Hayes' was increased during 4 of 7 years and cumulative yield was increased 37% when N was applied during October compared to March. Yield of `Patrick' and individual nut weight and kernel percentage of `Hayes' and `Patrick' were not affected by N application time. Phosphorus application increased leaf P concentration 5 of 7 years during the study. Shoot growth, yield, individual nut weight, and kernel percentage were not affected by P application.

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A study was designed to determine if current dormant-bud cryopreservation techniques investigated on woody plants, such as apple (Malus domestica), gooseberry (Ribes), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and pear (Pryus communis) etc., could be applied to certain nut tree species for long-term preservation. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) and black walnut (Juglans nigra) were exposed to prefreezing temperatures ranging from -10° C to -40° C and then directly immersed in liquid nitrogen for 2 hrs. Dehydration by prefreezing was not sufficient for bud survival in pecan. Bud survival was increased by dehydrating stem sections prior to prefreezing. Prefreezing at -30° or -40° C was suitable for survival of black walnut.

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