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data loggers [HOBO (Onset Computer Co., Bourne, MA), WatchDog (Spectrum Technologies, Plainfield, IL), and Apogee line quantum sensors (Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT)] ( Fig. 1 ). Plants were grown in a warm environment (average 25.3 °C day/23.0 °C

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line quantum sensor (Apogee Instruments, Inc., Logan, UT)] provided by cool-white fluorescent (F96T12CWVHO; Philips, Somerset, NJ) and INC lamps with a 9-h photoperiod. The calculated mean daily air temperature (MDT) inside the chamber was 19.4 °C. On

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. Greenhouse environmental conditions were measured using a quantum sensor (Apogee SQ-110; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT) and temperature and relative humidity sensor (HMP50; Vaisala) connected to a data logger (CR-10; Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT). The daily

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, Austin, TX) were installed 37.5 cm above the tray bottom. The PPFD in each section was measured with a spectroradiometer (SS-110; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT) and averaged (± sd ) 186 ± 6.4 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 plus 4.0 to 4.7 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 of far

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using a chlorophyll concentration meter (MC-100; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT), both following the manufacturer’s instruction manuals. Experimental design and statistical analysis . Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with

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Aqua AS8RD; Hydrofarm) and an air pump (60-W; Active Aqua AAPA70L; Hydrofarm). A quantum sensor (SQ-500; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT) and a temperature and relative humidity sensor (Model EE08-SS; Apogee Instruments) were installed and connected to a

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; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT), and air temperature with a thermocouple (TMC1-HD; Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA), in a naturally aspirated solar shield (RS3; Onset) every 15 s in a growth chamber; and averages were recorded by a data logger (HOBO U12

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between samples. Light measurements. PAR was measured with an Apogee Quantum Meter, Model QMSW-SS (Apogee Instruments, Inc., Logan, UT), and red:far-red ratios were measured with a Skye red–far-red meter (Skye Instruments, Ltd., Powys, U.K.). Results and

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) lamps provided a supplemental PPF of 50 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 at plant height [as measured with a light quantum sensor containing 10 photodiodes (Apogee Instruments, Inc., Logan, UT)] when the ambient greenhouse PPF was less than 140 μmol·m −2 ·s −1

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quantum sensors (SQ512; Apogee Instruments Inc., Logan, UT, USA) interfaced to a datalogger (CR1000 with AM16/32B multiplexer; Campbell Scientific, Inc.) were placed at above-canopy height in the center of each bench. Measurements were recorded at 60-min

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