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Bing Liu, Hong Zhou, Sha Cao, Yi-ping Xia and Rajeev Arora

Geographical distribution of plants in temperate climates is determined by their ability to survive extended periods of subfreezing temperatures. Woody perennials in such climates are able to do so by acquiring a gradual, seasonal increase in their

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Barbara A. Fair, Brian Whipker,, Ingram McCall and Wayne Buhler

-drained, light soil ( Page and Olds, 2004 ). Many species from Mexico and South America are considered subshrubs (woody perennial base with annual herbaceous shoots) that may not be cold hardy in southeastern United States ( Armitage, 2006 ). In a 2008–10 field

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Douglas G. Bielenberg and Ksenija Gasic

performed on a thermal gradient table, which can generate many temperatures simultaneously ( Welbaum et al., 2016 ). However, experiments involving larger plant parts, such as cut stems used in forcing experiments of woody perennials, require temperature

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Cecil T. Pounders and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

summers. The clones are also adapted for use as woody perennial plants in USDA hardiness zones 9 and above for use as hedges, specimen plants, and mass plantings. Plants prefer partial or afternoon shade in climates with intense summer sunlight but are

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Jennifer Drew, Chengyan Yue, Neil O. Anderson and Philip G. Pardey

statistics regarding this data are available ( cf, Drew, 2010 ). Table 1. Ornamental price data structure of observations by firm [nine firms and pooled (All Firms)], plant type (woody perennial, herbaceous perennial, all types, total observations) and

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Kirk W. Pomper, Jeremiah D. Lowe, Li Lu, Sheri B. Crabtree, Shandeep Dutta, Kyle Schneider and James Tidwell

fragment length polymorphism [AFLP ( Wang et al., 2005 )]. Overall, these studies determined that the genetic variation in cultivated and wild pawpaw is similar to those of other long-lived, temperate woody perennials characterized by a widespread

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Li Lu, Kirk W. Pomper, Jeremiah D. Lowe and Sheri B. Crabtree

( Pomper et al., 2003 )], and SSR ( Pomper et al., 2010 ). Overall, these studies determined that the genetic variation in both cultivated and wild pawpaws is similar to those of other long-lived, temperate woody perennials characterized by a widespread

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Eleanor W. Hoffman, Dirk U. Bellstedt and Gerard Jacobs

. Discussion The increase in cytokinin concentration before buds sprouted in spring of ‘Carnival’ xylem sap resembles similar patterns found in other woody perennials ( Belding and Young, 1989 ; Hewett and Wareing, 1973 ), and the concentration is comparable

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Guihong Bi and Carolyn F. Scagel

; Klein and Weinbaum, 1985 ; Rosecrance et al., 1998 ; Shim et al., 1972 ). However, with woody perennial plants, responses to foliar urea sprays are affected by plant N status. For example, spraying leaves on apple trees with urea in fall was more

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Katherine M. Ghantous, Hilary A. Sandler, Wesley R. Autio and Peter Jeranyama

Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a long-lived woody perennial with slender trailing stems that grows in acidic sandy soils. Cranberries in the United States are produced primarily in Massachusetts, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Washington, and