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R.C. Ebel, W.A. Dozier, B. Hockema, F.M. Woods, R. Thomas, B.S. Wilkins, M. Nesbitt and R. McDaniel

This study was conducted to determine fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin Citrus unshiu, Marc. `Owari' grown on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Soluble solids increased linearly and titratable acidity decreased quadratically during October and November for the four sampling years. There was no significant interaction between sampling date and year. There was a significant year effect for titratable acidity, but not soluble solids or their ratio. A 10:1 soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio was observed on 10 Nov. Variation in fruit weight corresponded with cropload. Fruit weight increased during the sampling period due to an increase in fruit length since there was no change in width. Peel color was yellow-orange by 10 Nov., with many fruit still exhibiting patches of green color. Because of some green color present in the peel, the fruit would have to be degreened for successful marketing in U.S. retail chain stores.

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Ignasi Iglesias and Simó Alegre

). This technique improved fruit coloration in red and bicolored apples and reduced the number of harvests required, without any adverse effects on fruit firmness, soluble solid content, starch score or acidity, as reported by Andris and Crisosto (1996

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Michael J. Havey, Marita Cantwell, Meriel G. Jones, Richard W. Jones, Norman E. Schmidt, John Uhlig, J.F. Watson and Kil Sun Yoo

Onion pungency is a major quality attribute with many consumers demanding less pungent onions. In recent years, some growers and retailers have attempted to measure pungency of onions produced in different regions to guarantee a desired level of pungency. However, there are few data on the variability among laboratories using standardized protocols to estimate relative levels of pungencies. Onion cultivars were grown in replicated trials at three locations. Random samples of bulbs from each experimental unit were harvested and shipped to at least three cooperating laboratories, each of which measured soluble solids content (SSC) and pungencies using the same techniques. As expected, cultivars and environments showed significant (P < 0.001) differences. For all three trials, laboratories were a highly significant source of variation (P < 0.024 to 0.001) for measurements of SSC and pungency. Therefore, one cannot make recommendations on relative pungencies of the same lots of onions measured by different labs. The onion research community must identify specific procedures to reduce variation among laboratories to develop a more repeatable standardized assay for the measurement of onion pungency.

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John C. Beaulieu and Jeanne M. Lea

[soluble solids concentration (SSC)] are generally the determinant of quality ( Bianco and Pratt, 1977 ; Yamaguchi et al., 1977 ). However, SSC in five muskmelon cultivars were only partially correlated with sweetness ( Mutton et al., 1981 ; Yamaguchi et

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Sylvia M. Blankenship, Donna D. Ellsworth and Ronald L. Powell

A starch staining technique using pictures to rate starch disappearance has been developed to determine banana pulp maturity. The disappearance of starch from the pulp shows linear correlation with peel color (r 2 = 0.76) and soluble solids content (r 2 = 0.81). Pulp pH shows a poor correlation with starch disappearance (r 2 = 0.38). Staining banana pulp starch with an iodine solution is a quick and easy method for estimation of pulp maturity.

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Joshua D. Klein and Susan Lurie

`Anna' and `Granny Smith' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) that were kept at 46C for 12 hours or at 42C for 24 hours before storage at 0C were firmer at the end of storage and had a higher soluble solids: acid ratio and a lower incidence of superficial scald than unheated fruit. These heat regimes produced results similar to those obtained by keeping fruit at 38C for 72 or 96 hours before storage. Prestorage regimes of 46C for 24 hours or 42C for 48 hours resulted in fruit damage after storage.

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Victorine Alleyne and John R. Clark

An investigation was conducted over 2 years to evaluate the effect of N rate and time of application on fruit composition of `Arapaho' thornless erect blackberry (Rubus L., subgenus Eubatus). N from ammonium nitrate was applied at 56 or 112 kg·ha-1 in single applications, or at 112 kg·ha-1 as a split application with 0 kg·ha-1 as the control. Increasing N rates increased fruit N and pH but did not affect soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, sugar-acid ratio, and total solids. Timing of N application had no effect on the fruit characteristics measured.

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E.A. Baldwin, J.W. Scott, M.A. Einstein, T.M.M. Malundo, B.T. Carr, R.L. Shewfelt and K.S. Tandon

The major components of flavor in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and other fruit are thought to be sugars, acids, and flavor volatiles. Tomato overall acceptability, tomato-like flavor, sweetness, and sourness for six to nine tomato cultivars were analyzed by experienced panels using a nine-point scale and by trained descriptive analysis panels using a 15-cm line scale for sweetness, sourness, three to five aroma and three to seven taste descriptors in three seasons. Relationships between sensory data and instrumental analyses, including flavor volatiles, soluble solids (SS), individual sugars converted to sucrose equivalents (SE), titratable acidity (TA), pH, SS/TA, and SE/TA, were established using correlation and multiple linear regression. For instrumental data, SS/TA, SE/TA, TA, and cis-3-hexenol correlated with overall acceptability (P = 0.05); SE, SE/TA (P≤0.03), geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (P = 0.11) with tomato-like flavor; SE, pH, cis-3-hexenal, trans-2-hexenal, hexanal, cis-3-hexenol, geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol, trans-2 heptenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (P≤0.11) with sweetness; and SS, pH, acetaldehyde, aceton, 2-isobutylthiazole, geranlyacetone, β-ionone, ethanol, hexanal and cis-3-hexenal with sourness (P≤0.15) for experienced or trained panel data. Measurements for SS/TA correlated with overall taste (P=0.09) and SS with astringency, bitter aftertaste, and saltiness (P≤0.07) for trained panel data. In addition to the above mentioned flavor volatiles, methanol and 1-penten-3-one significantly affected sensory responses (P = 0.13) for certain aroma descriptors. Levels of aroma compounds affected perception of sweetness and sourness and measurements of SS showed a closer relationship to sourness, astringency, and bitterness than to sweetness.

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David Obenland, Sue Collin, James Sievert and Mary Lu Arpaia

Navel oranges were subjected to high-temperature forced-air (HTFA) treatment to evaluate the effect on quality and sensory attributes as well as flavor volatiles of a treatment protocol designed to disinfest citrus of Anastrepha spp. fruit flies. The treatment consisted of heating the fruit to a core temperature of 44 °C and then holding it there for 100 min, after which the fruit were placed into storage for 4 weeks. The fruit were removed from storage and evaluated for surface injury, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and then judged for sensory characteristics by a semiexpert panel. In a separate experiment, fruit were removed at 30-min intervals from the treatment chamber and sensory quality as well as flavor volatiles determined to obtain an estimate of when the flavor changes occurred. It was found that the HTFA treatment caused a significant loss in flavor quality that was most closely linked to a loss in the fresh flavor of the fruit. The HTFA-treated fruit were also determined by panelists to be less sweet, although the SSC/TA ratio was increased by treatment. Neither storage nor waxing after treatment appeared to alter the HTFA effect, although waxing before treatment greatly enhanced the negative effect on flavor. Flavor began to be significantly affected during the final 30 min of treatment. The flavor changes occurred at the same time as large increases in the amount of four esters, two of which were present in concentrations exceeding aroma thresholds and are likely involved in the loss in flavor quality induced by HTFA treatment.

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Robert C. Ebel, Edward L. Proebsting and Max E Patterson

`Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees received regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) early in the growing season to determine if fruit quality and storage life would he altered compared to well-watered trees. Soil moisture and leaf water potential were lower in RDI trees than in those that did not receive RDI most of the season. Internal ethylene concentration increased logarithmically earlier in RDI apples. At harvest, RDI fruit were smaller and had a higher soluble solids concentration (SSC) and lower titratable acidity. Starch degradation was delayed in RDI fruit, and their color was not affected. Firmness was not affected when the effect of size on firmness was removed. The SSC of RDI apples remained higher during storage, but starch content, titratable acidity, firmness, and color were similar.