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sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, and is associated with flower development that affects the loss of cold hardiness ( Greer et al., 2005 ). After using the degree days approach, our findings concur with tree sellers’ criteria for apple and sweet cherry

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milligram of raffinose was added to each sample as the internal standard. The tissue suspension was then centrifuged and re-extracted twice to collect the pooled supernatants ( n = 3). After deionization, filtration, and appropriate dilution, the samples

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that trehalose supported raffinose pollen germination and pollen tube growth, but the germination percentage and tube length were lower than those induced by sucrose. Another study demonstrated similar effects of trehalose on pollen germination, but it

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nitrogen and stored at –70 °C. After freeze-drying, dry weight was recorded, and then the samples were ground to a powder. Each sample (50 mg) was extracted at 70 °C with 3 mL 80% ethanol for 30 min. One milligram of raffinose was added to each sample as

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into powder. For soluble sugars, we weighed 50 mg of sample fine powder into tubes to which 100 μL of 1% raffinose was added as an internal standard. The sample was extracted at 70 °C with 80% ethanol, three extractions of 3 mL each, 30 min per

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. Sucrose is the most common form in which plants transport carbon in the phloem (see Turgeon, 1996 ), often accompanied by raffinose oligosaccharides and/or polyols such as alditols (e.g., sorbitol, mannitol) or cyclic polyols such as D-pinitol (see

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are the primary form of carbohydrates in watermelon seedlings, with fructose and glucose dominating in petiole tissue, and sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose dominating in leaf tissue ( Ranwala et al., 2002 ). Within the Cucurbit family, stachyose and

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starch hydrolysis, which leads to a higher accumulation of total sugars. Especially sucrose, fructose, and glucose are linked to higher expression of beta-amylases, invertase, raffinose synthase, and various sugar transporters in preparation for cold

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.3.376 McPhee, K.E. Zemetra, R.S. Brown, J. Myers, J.R. 2002 Genetic analysis of the raffinose family oligosaccharides in common bean J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127 376 382 10.1023/A:1004331011493 Mkanda, A.V. Minnaar, A. de Kock, H.L. 2007 Relating consumer

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pulp contains up to 90% water and is also a good source of fiber. The predominant sugar in apricot is sucrose. Glucose, fructose, maltose, and raffinose are also present, but in lower concentrations ( Gatti et al., 2009 ). The most important organic

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