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biosolids on root length density and root surface area of turfgrass under moisture stress conditions. It has been reported that N metabolites (such as proline) are closely related to drought tolerance ( Caravaca et al., 2004 ). Nitrate reductase is one of

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until the contents became colorless. The extracting solution was analyzed with the Kjeldahl method ( Kirk, 1950 ) and the Mo–Sb colorimetric method ( Mel’Tser, 1960 ) to determine total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), respectively. Proline

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., 1993 ). Fructans have a role in producing high ψ S ( Livingston, 1996 ) and can also maintain cellular integrity by binding membranes to keep them flexible and unimpaired during freezing ( Cairns, 1992 ; Valluru and Van den Ende, 2008 ). Proline can

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chromatography mobile phase. Proline analysis. The third and fourth leaves from the apical shoot of four plants per plot were frozen immediately in liquid N at each harvest (48, 70, and 95 DAS). The method of Bates et al. (1973) was adopted to determine the

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microplate to measure GSH based on the change in absorbance during a 15-min reaction period. Leaf sugar (sucrose and glucose) and proline content. The leaf sucrose and glucose were analyzed according to Zhang et al. (2006) . Proline content was determined

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. Proline content, TNC content, MDA content, H 2 O 2 content, DAO (EC 1.4.3.6), PAO (EC. 1.5.3.3), SOD (EC 1.15.1.1), APX (EC 1.11.1.11), POD (EC 1.111.1.7), CAT (EC 1.111.1.6) antioxidant enzymes activity, GSH, and turf quality were measured on days 0, 8

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. Measurement of RWC, IL, MDA, and proline content. Tobacco seedlings of four-leaf stage from WT and Y8 line were transplanted in 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution under a 16/8 h light/dark cycle at 25 °C for 10 d, then the seedlings with consistent growth state

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osmotic adjustment are diverse and typically include low molecular weight compounds such as amino acids (e.g., proline), ammonium compounds (e.g., glycine betaine), sugars (e.g., fructans, sucrose), polyols (e.g., mannitol), inorganic ions (e.g., potassium

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mixture contained 1 mL of supernatant, 1 mL of 18% phenol solution, and 5 mL concentrated sulfuric acid. The mixture was shaken, and absorbance was read at 490 nm using a spectrophotometer (Spectronic Instruments). Free proline content was quantified

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for calculating proline and total soluble protein content (TSP) on a DW basis. The dry leaf tissues were used for analysis of TSS. LT 50 determination. Freezing injury was assessed on 21 May 2012 by measuring the lethal low temperature (LT 50 ) of

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