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Jiang Lu and Bernard Prins

The grape belongs to the genus Vitis L., which are divided into two subgenera, Euvitis Planch. and Muscadinia Planch. The Euvitis has 50 to 70 species, in which V. vinifera L. is a predominant species with hundreds of known commercial cultivars grown world wide. The Muscadinia (muscadine grapes) consists of only two to three species predominated by V. rotundifolia and only commercially cultivated in the southeastern United States. V. rotundifolia is known by its multiple resistance to almost all grape diseases and insects found on the Euvitis species, while the latter possesses good fruit characteristics that do not exist in muscadines. Attempts to produce rotundifolia-vinifera hybrids to combine good fruit quality and disease resistance of both into F1 hybrids have been made by grape breeders for many years. Limited success was reported when the V. vinifera was used as seed parents. This research extended the interspecific crosses beyond V. vinifera into other Euvitis species. Among the Euvitis species, A. aestivalis, V. cinerea, V. champinii, V. labrusca, V. monticola, V. nesbittiana, V. riparia, V. rupestris, V. thunbergii, V. quinguangularis, all with pistillate flowers, were used as female parents pollinated with V. rotundifolia pollen. Eight out of the 10 cross combinations except V. cinerea and V. thunbergii set fruits. However, most of the Euvitis-rotundifolia crosses had extremely low fruits set (<1% of pollinated flowers). The only exception was V. labrusca cv. Woodruff, which had very high percentage of fruit set (70%). Interestingly, the fruits of V. labrusca cv. Woodruff × rotundifolia were pathonocarpic that had only half size of regular fruits set from open pollination with pollen sources from other Euvitis species. In the reciprocal crosses, three pistillate V. rotundifolia cultivars, `Fry', `Higgins', `Jumbo', were used as female pollinated by pollen from Euvitis species. Limited fruit sets were found from the crosses of V. rotundifolia × V. shuttleworthii, V. cordifolia, V. rupestris, V. Piasezkii, V. quinquagularis. Results from this study indicated that hybridization between Euvitis and muscadinia species is indeed very difficult but it is possible, and some Euvitis species are cross more compatible with V. rotundifolia than the others.

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Veli Erdogan and Shawn A. Mehlenbacher

Eight Corylus L. (hazelnut) species were intercrossed in all possible combinations to reveal genetic relationships. Pollinations were made on either individually bagged branches or trees covered entirely with polyethylene using mixtures of pollen of five genotypes to minimize low cluster set due to single incompatible combinations. Percent cluster set, seed germination, and hybrid seedling survival were determined. Hybridity of seedlings was verified by inspection of morphological traits. Based on percent cluster set, seed germination, and hybrid seedling survival along with observed morphological similarities, Corylus species were placed in three groups: 1) the tree hazels C. colurna L. (turkish tree hazel) and C. chinensis Franchet (chinese tree hazel), 2) the bristle-husked shrub species C. cornuta Marshall (beaked hazel), C. californica (A.DC.) Rose (california hazel), and C. sieboldiana Blume (manchurian hazel), and 3) the leafy-husked shrub species C. avellana L. (european hazel), C. americana Marshall (american hazel), C. heterophylla Fischer (siberian hazel), and C. heterophylla Fischer var. sutchuensis Franchet (sichuan hazel). The two tree hazel species crossed with each other readily, as did the three bristle-husked shrub species. The frequency of blanks was low (<20%) for crosses of the tree hazels, and <50% for interspecific crosses within the group of bristle-husked species. The leafy-husked shrub species could be crossed with each other in all directions, although cluster set on C. heterophylla was low. For crosses of species belonging to different groups, set was generally low and the frequency of blanks high. Nevertheless, a few hybrid seedlings were obtained from several combinations. When used as the female parent, C. californica set nuts when crossed with all other species, indicating possible value as a bridge species. Crosses involving C. avellana were more successful when it was the pollen parent. In crosses with C. avellana pollen, cluster set on C. chinensis was better than on C. colurna and the frequency of blanks was much lower, indicating that it might be easier to transfer nonsuckering growth habit from C. chinensis than from C. colurna. Reciprocal differences in the success of crosses was observed. The following crosses were successful C. californica × C. avellana, C. chinensis × C. avellana, C americana × C. heterophylla, C. cornuta × C heterophylla, C. californica × C. colurna, and C. americana × C. sieboldiana, but the reciprocals were not.

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Li Jiang, Yun-wen Wang and Bruce L. Dunn

. Interspecific crosses. Compared with the intraspecific crosses, most interspecific crosses in the genus Lychnis produced fewer flowers that set seed and had lower seed germination percentages ( Tables 4 and 5 ). However, the percent of flowers that set seed

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Chunqing Sun, Zhihu Ma, Zhenchao Zhang, Guosheng Sun and Zhongliang Dai

create a hardy blue water lily hybrid through the infusion of germplasms from tropical water lilies with several colors, including blue, in subgenera Anecphya , Confluentes , and Brachyceras. In most interspecific crosses, however, the existence of

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Sarah M. Smith and Zhanao Deng

container. Pollinated flower heads were rebagged immediately and the bags were kept on until the seeds matured and were harvested. Cross types included intraspecific outcrossing within both species, reciprocal interspecific crosses, F 1 self-pollination, F

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Cecil Pounders, Tim Rinehart and Hamidou Sakhanokho

. A high degree of fertility was apparently maintained throughout initial crosses between the two species and various combinations of progeny. Other interspecific crosses incorporated into the L. indica × L. fauriei breeding program include L

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

because intraspecific crosses would likely involve significant inbreeding. Table 3. Intraspecific cross-compatibility within series Pubescentes and Syringa in lilac. Table 4. Interspecific cross-compatibility within series Pubescentes , Syringa , and

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Eun Young Nam, Ji Hae Jun, Kyeong Ho Chung, Jung Hyun Kwon, Seok Kyu Yun, Ik Koo Yun and Kang Hee Cho

limited genetic variability typically available to the breeder ( Hadley and Openshaw, 1980 ; Kester et al., 1991 ). Interspecific crosses are a valuable tool to enlarge the gene pool and to develop new cultivars with good quality, good functional

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Richard J. Henny and J. Chen

Aglaonema ‘Mondo Bay’ is a selection (hybrid #742-3) from an interspecific cross of A. commutatum Schott ‘Treubii’ with A. nitidum Curtisii. ‘Mondo Bay’ was selected from a hybrid population of 87 plants because of its vigor, excellent basal shoot

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Dale T. Lindgren and Daniel M. Schaaf

28 1194 1195 Lindgren, D. 2006 List and description of named cultivars in the genus Penstemon University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension EC1255 Lindgren, D.T. Schaaf, D.M. 2007 Penstemon: A summary of interspecific crosses Hort-Science 42 494 498