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( Jensen et al., 2002a , 2002b ). In addition, computer activity reduces parasympathetic activity, which can lead to tension and stress ( Garde et al., 2002 ; Hjortskov et al., 2004 ). In contrast, horticultural activities are effective in restoring and

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Why should we address ourselves simultaneously to the subjects of Horticulture and Pollution? The two would appear to be poles apart. Horticulture, a gentle, pastoral art, provides for the material and esthetic needs of mankind. It does much good and seemingly harms no one. To think of horticulture is to bring forth visions of golden fruit, crisp lettuce, the noble potato, the aromatic onion, the fragrant rose, and the fragile orchid. Horticulture is the world of bounty and beauty, and pollution is the realm of filth, dissolution, decay, and squalor. Yet, horticulture and pollution do impinge upon one another and have come increasingly to have to coexist in a deteriorating environment.

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, 2017 ). As a means of education and vocational rehabilitation, horticulture programs were historically integrated into detention facilities across the United States ( Rice and Remy, 1994 ). Many prisoners have participated in horticultural activities

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Horticultural and other specialty crops, although grown on a relatively small cultivated area, provide nearly 50% of the crop sales value in the United States ( NASS, 2002 ). The growth stages and phenology of many horticultural crops are not well

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Evidence of professional competence is needed for those whose activities affect the well-being of the general public. Graduates of BS and MS programs in horticulture are not distinguishable from self styled individuals who assume the title of “Horticulturist” without earning it. Certification of horticultural graduates is the first step in gaining a recognition for the Horticultural Profession. ASHS has established a Certified Professional Horticultural Sub-Board of the American Registry of Certified Professionals in Agronomy, Crops and Soils (ARCPACS). Professional core requirements include courses horticultural crop management, pest management, soil science, plant physiology, botany, chemistry, and genetics. Supporting core courses include math, communication skills, and horticultural specialization courses. Applications from individual horticultural graduates will soon be accepted. Details of the curriculum, continuing education, ethics, and other eligibility requirements will be detailed.

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Master Gardeners are volunteers who assist local cooperative extension horticulture and related program efforts by receiving training and conducting educational activities and projects. Participants generally receive training and volunteer within a 1-year period. The emphasis has shifted to longer retention of trained, experienced Master Gardeners. There are several advantages in retaining volunteers. Volunteers with established knowledge who “know the ropes” serve as spokespersons for the program to recruit additional volunteers and as mentors for new class members. Since 1980, Master Gardeners in Johnson County, Ran., have served the 300,000 population base of the southwestern Kansas City suburban area through the county extension horticulture program. About 35% of the members of the first classes are still active volunteer participants after 10 years. Retention is encouraged by emphasizing that volunteer time is an opportunity for continued learning, rather than a “payback” for training received. An advisory board and committee structure encourages “ownership” of the program, and an advanced training program is offered to retained volunteers. Developing ideas for quality volunteer activities is continuously stressed. As new volunteers start the program, their abilities and skills in nonhorticultural areas that may be useful are assessed, such as woodworking, photography, speaking, leadership, and art. Applicants are screened to limit class size to 20 to 25 participants.

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their expanding use in agriculture and horticulture ( Cunha et al., 2010 ; Delgado et al., 2013 ). The diverse range of software applications for these devices make them powerful tools for education ( Hlodan, 2010 ), extension ( Drill, 2012 ), and

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Horticulture is both an art as old as the Garden of Eden and a science as new as tomorrow. It is a hobby to some, and a profession to others. But, in any case, horticulture deals with the development, growth, distribution, and utilization of fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. Horticulture enriches our lives with nutritious, flavorsome foods and the beauty and utility of decorative plants.

It is possible to obtain horticultural training in high schools and vocational schools, in arboreta and public gardens, in junior colleges, and state universities where a student may earn not only a Bachelor of Science (BS), but also a Master's (MS) or Doctorate (PhD) degree. Early horticulture work experience will assist in making the decision whether this career is the one to pursue and at what educational level.

The following job descriptions are provided to illustrate the kinds of positions for which college graduates in horticulture can qualify and what these jobs involve. Although a number of the jobs described do not necessarily require a college degree, they are included because college graduates often take them as stepping stones to higher positions. These descriptions are divided into two categories: 1) specific category jobs which require a more specialized background in horticulture such as knowledge pertaining to fruits, vegetables, floriculture (greenhouse-grown flowers and potted plants), and horticulture therapy; 2) general category jobs which either require a broad background in horticulture, or are similar in nature within all horticultural areas.

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). Previous research focused on health and human issues in horticulture (HIH) and established the beneficial role of plants and the practice of horticulture in a range of therapeutic, educational, and workplace settings ( Relf, 1992 ; Shoemaker et al., 1992

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Abstract

An art as old as the Garden of Eden and a science as new as tomorrow, horticulture deals with the development, growth, distribution, and utilization of fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. Horticulture is a hobby to some and a profession to others. It enriches our lives with nutritious, flavorsome foods and the beauty and utility of decorative plants.

Open Access