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Jaime Barros da Silva Filho, Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes, Paulo Roberto Cecon, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, Milton E. McGiffen Jr. and Jonathan F. Montgomery

. Aeroponic system The UFV Aeroponic System ( Silva Filho et al., 2018 ) used a lidded high-density polyethylene container, with 100-L capacity and a lateral opening covered with a black plastic curtain ( Fig. 2A ). Irrigation was supplied by an electric water

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Shinsuke Agehara and Daniel I. Leskovar

volume of high-density plug trays ( Marr and Jirak, 1990 ; Nishizawa and Saito, 1998 ). Such transplants are susceptible not only to damage during shipping and transplanting ( Garner and Björkman, 1996 ; Shaw, 1993 ), but also to wind lodging in the

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Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Sung-hee Guak and Tom Forge

that the N application rates were in excess of requirements for high-density apple, which can be as low as 25 g N/tree ( Neilsen et al., 2009 ). P was fertigated for 1 d immediately after full bloom and before the start of regular N applications as

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Denise Neilsen, Gerry Neilsen, Sunghee Guak and Tom Forge

25 g N/tree can be sufficient for high-density apple trees ( Neilsen et al., 2009 ). Phosphorus was fertigated the day after full bloom and before the start of N applications as ammonium polyphosphate (10N–15P–0K) and supplied 20 g P/tree/year and 13

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Mark A. Williams, John G. Strang, Ricardo T. Bessin, Derek Law, Delia Scott, Neil Wilson, Sarah Witt and Douglas D. Archbold

increasingly possible. To determine the feasibility of, and identify specific challenges to, organic apple production in Kentucky, a high-density, organic apple orchard was established in 2007 at the University of Kentucky Horticultural Research Farm in

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester, Bahar Fallahi and Shahla Mahdavi

concentrations and thus indirectly affect fruit quality and yield ( Chun et al., 2001 ; Fallahi et al., 2001a , 2001b ). The use of a suitable tree architecture or training in a high-density orchard is determined by the rootstock vigor and soil type. Clements

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Jasmine J. Mah, David Llewellyn and Youbin Zheng

reductions in PPF at the lower crop-level because of high density HB production may result in a daily light integral (DLI) at or below the minimum requirement for ‘good quality’ bedding plants, which is considered to be 10–12 mol·m −2 ·d −1 for greenhouse

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Mongi Zekri

Since the environmental conditions and cultural practices are unique in southwest Florida, a study was performed to determine the horticultural adaptability and performance of `Valencia' orange trees on four commercial rootstocks grown in a high-density planting. The trees were planted in 1991 on a flatwoods soil in a commercial grove at a density of 627 trees/ha. Leaf mineral concentration, growth, and fruit production and quality were measured 4 and 7 years after planting. Compared to Florida citrus leaf standards, leaf mineral concentration values were within the optimum to the high range. Yield efficiency expressed as kilograms of solids per cubed meter of canopy and juice quality in terms of juice content, soluble solids concentration, and kilograms of solids per box increased with tree age. Tree and fruit size were the highest for Volkamer lemon (Volk) and the lowest for Cleopatra mandarin (Cleo). Fruit yield was the highest for Volk. However, yield expressed in kilograms of solids per hectare was not significantly different between Volk and `Swingle' citrumelo (Swi) due to the higher solids per box for Swi. Yield efficiency was also higher for Swi than for Volk. Juice content and soluble solids in the fruit were higher for Swi and Cleo than for the lemon rootstocks. Financial analysis showed that at high-density planting, trees on Swi were the most profitable. On noncalcareous flatwoods soil, Swi is the best suited rootstock for high-density planting.

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Gregory M. Peck, Ian A. Merwin, Michael G. Brown and Arthur M. Agnello

experiment was located in a 0.42-ha block of high-density (1537 trees/ha; 1.5 m between trees; 4.3 m between rows; 2.7 m tall) ‘Liberty’/‘M.9’ apple trees at the Cornell Orchards in Ithaca, NY (long. 42°26′ N, lat. 76°27′ W). The soil was a Collamer silty

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Stephen S. Miller and George M. Greene II

Replicated studies were conducted from 1996 to 1999 to evaluate the effect of a metalized reflective film (RF) on red color development in several apple (Malus ×domestica) cultivars that often develop poor to marginal color in the mid-Atlantic growing region. Film was applied to the orchard floor in the middle between tree rows or under the tree beginning 5 to 7 weeks before the predicted maturity date. Light reflected into the canopy from the RF was measured and compared with a standard orchard sod, a killed sod or various polyethylene films. Fruit color was estimated visually and with a hand-held spectrophotometer. Fruit quality (firmness, soluble solids, starch index) was determined from a representative sample of fruit. RF increased the level of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) reflected into the canopy resulting in darker, redder colored `Delicious', `Empire', and `Fuji' apples with a greater proportion of surface showing red color. RF increased canopy temperature and fruit surface temperature. A white polyethylene film increased reflected PPF and fruit color, but generally not to the extent of the metalized RF. Large [>13 ft (4.0 m) height] well-pruned `Delicious' trees showed increased fruit color, especially when the RF was placed under the canopy, but `Empire' trees of similar size and a more dense canopy showed no effect. The effect of the RF was most pronounced in the lower portion [up to 8 ft (2.4 m) height] of the canopy. A high-density RF was as effective as a low-density RF and the high-density film was about 60% less expensive. A high-density RF may be a cost effective method to enhance red color on selected apple cultivars in the mid-Atlantic region. Comparisons between ethephon and the RF were variable: ethephon appeared to have more effect on color in `Empire' than the RF, but less effect than the RF on `Hardibrite Delicious'. Ethephon consistently advanced fruit maturity. Chemical name used: (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).