to the plants’ ornamental value. Evergreen plants, which can retain their functional leaves throughout the year, are uncommon among herbaceous perennials compared with deciduous ones which are leafless for some part of their annual cycle ( Kikuzawa
Danqing Li, Jiao Zhang, Jiaping Zhang, Kang Li and Yiping Xia
Bridget K. Behe, Elizabeth H. Moore, Arthur Cameron and Forrest S. Carter
The U.S. wholesale market for flowering potted plants, valued at $701 million in 2000, is growing much slower than the $2.1 billion bedding plant market, indicating the product life-cycle of the former may have matured. A mature product yields little profit. Customers who purchase flowering potted plants for indoor enjoyment may have expectations about them, including that plant life is finite and there is no opportunity for outdoor use. Because scientists have discovered how to force selected perennials to flower, marketers may reposition them as indoor flowering potted plants, creating a new product and potentially stimulating sales of this lagging floral category. One method for relating customer perceptions of new products to familiar ones is perceptual mapping, which shows how consumers implicitly categorize products. Defining how consumers perceive the relationships between the selected flowering plants enables marketers to select the best opportunities for product positioning, merchandising, and pricing. We surveyed 200 self-selected visitors at a Michigan flower show in Apr. 2000 to determine their uses for, preferences for, and perceptions of three traditional indoor flowering potted plants and six traditional outdoor perennials. Perceptions were recorded on a seven-point scale. Squared Euclidean distances were calculated to derive the map in which two major dimensions emerged: use (indoor/outdoor) and flower color. Campanula carpatica Jacq. `Blue Clips' and Oxalis crassipes Urb. were mapped centrally, indicating participants had no strong perceptions for how these plants should be used. This suggests that Campanula and Oxalis have the greatest potential to be positioned for dual indoor and outdoor enjoyment, which may also yield some enhanced profitability.
Catherine Whitman, Royal Heins, Arthur Cameron and William Carlson
The influence of low temperatures on Campanula carpatica `Blue Clips' and Lavandula angustifolia `Munstead' flowering was determined; plants were stored at 5C for several weeks and forced under 9-h photoperiods with a 4-h night interruption (NI). C. carpatica, L. angustifolia, and Asclepias tuberosa were forced under NI at five temperatures (15–27C) and time to flower under each treatment was calculated. Flower number and size were reduced at highest temperatures. The effectiveness of cool-white fluorescent (CWF), high-pressure sodium (HPS), incandescent (I), and metal halide (MH) lights in inducing flowering in C. carpatica and Coreopsis lanceolata `Early Sunrise' was compared. Lighting was delivered as a 7-h daylength extension with PPF ranging from 0.05–2.0 μmol·m–2·s–1. Minimum irradiances above which all C. carpatica flowered were approximately 0.14, 0.12, 0.1, and 0.17 μmol·m–2·s–1, respectively. C. lanceolata under CWF displayed irregular flowering throughout the range of intensities used. Under HPS and MH, minimum irradiances for 100% flowering were 0.37 and 1.0 μmol·m–2·s–1, respectively, with sporadic flowering at lower intensities. Under I light, all C. lanceolata exposed to 0.12 μmol·m–2·s–1 or more flowered.
James E. Klett, David Staats and David Hillock
During the 1992 season six preemergent herbicides (Devrinol) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, Metolachlor (Pennant) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, Isoxaben (Gallery) at 1.1 and 2.3 kg/ha, Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout) at 3.4 and 13.6 kg/ha, Oryzalin (Surflan) at 2.8 and 4.5 kg/ha and Trifluralin (Treflan) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, were tested on Rudbeckia fulgida “Goldstrum”, Digitalis purpurea “Excelsior”, Chrysanthemum maximum “Alaska”, Stokesia laevis “Blue Danube”, and Geum hybrids “Mrs. Bradshaw”. Gallery at both rates resulted in visual phytotoxicity on Chrysanthemum, Digitalis and stunting in Rudbeckia at the 2.3 kg/ha rate. During the 1993 season the same herbicides plus Oxadiazon (Ronstar) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg/ha, were tested on Achillea tomentosa, and Thymus pseudolanuginosus. Gallery and Pennent at both rates resulted in visual phytotoxicity and stunted growth on Thymus pseudolanuginosus. Rout at the 13.6 kg/ha rate resulted in visual phytotoxicity on Achilles tomentosa.
Scott W. Dunn and James E. Klett
Perennials grown in 5.7-cm containers received two root treatments (mechanical root-pruned and non-pruned) prior to field planting. During the 1996 season, the two root treatments and five irrigation treatments, (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) ET0 (reference crop evapotranspiration), were tested on Delosperma cooperii, Delosperma nubigenum, Polygonum affine, and Veronica liwanensis and evaluated on the basis of plant growth and visual ratings. No significant change in height occurred in any species for both root or irrigation treatments. No significant change in width or density occurred in D. cooperii, from root treatment; however irrigation treatments below 50% resulted in a significant decrease in width. Significant deceases in width also occurred in all species from irrigation treatments. Mechanically root-pruned plants resulted in a significant decrease in density of D. nubigenum, P. affine, and V. liwanensis and a decrease in width in P. affine.
A. A De Hertogh, C. Noone and A. Lutman
Much information has been accumulated on various aspects of ornamental geophytes. This knowledge has been published in research articles and bulletins, books, extension publications, etc. Thus, it is scattered and not easily accessible. The Geophyte TM software program was developed to aid in information access and transfer. It has been designed for IBM compatible systems. There are 7 major parts in each database. They are: 1- General Aspects (species origin, botanical classification, common names, etc), 2- Flowering Requirements, 3- Production Information (production countries and acreage, major commercial cultivars, production methods, etc.), 4- Gardening Information (soil types, light, planting info, cultivar performance data, etc.), 5- Forcing Information (commercial cut flowers, potted plants, homeowner forcing), 6- References, and 7- In-House Information, a slot allowing the user to insert specific information on the genera provided.
Muhammed Maqbool and Arthur C. Cameron
Field-grown plants of Alcea rosea (L.) Cav. (hollyhock), Asparagus officinalis L., Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet `Sunray', Dicentra spectabilis (L.) Lem. (bleeding heart), Gaillardia ×grandiflora Van Houtte `Baby Cole', Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. `Russell Hybrids', and Phlox subulata L. `Emerald Pink' harvested as bare-root crowns in late fall were packaged in polyethylene-lined crates and stored for 6 months. There were no significant differences in the regrowth performance of any of the perennials following storage at 0 or -2C. The amount of surface covered by fungal hyphae (surface mold) increased more than 2-fold between 4 and 6 months of storage at 0 or -2C on all species. Dicentra spectabilis and Alcea rosea were most susceptible to mold growth during storage. Alcea rosea and Coreopsis grandiflora stored poorly at all storage temperatures. In a second experiment, the regrowth performance of Artemisia schmidtiana Maxim `Silver Mound', Asclepias tuberosa L., Aster novae-angliae L., Centranthus ruber (L.) DC., Chrysanthemum superbum Bergmans ex. J. Ingram, Dicentra eximia (Ker-Gawl.) Torr., Dicentra spectabilis, Geum quellon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw', Hosta `Honeybells', and Lupinus polyphyllus was tested following 6 months of storage at temperatures between -10 and +5C. Regrowth performance was generally similar at -2, 0, and 5C for most species. The results indicated, however, that Centranthus ruber and Chrysanthemum ×superbum should not be stored at temperatures of -2C or below. Sufficient etiolated growth developed for most species when stored at 2C or above to cause problems during shipping, handling, and potting. In general, mold growth on crowns during storage did not reduce regrowth performance of the species tested.
Jean-Jacques B. Dubois*, Frank A. Blazich and C. David Raper
Research by the authors has demonstrated the effect of day/night temperature difference (Tdiff) on plant growth is as substantive as the effect of daily average temperature (DAT). Dependence of plant primary productivity on temperature cannot be assessed with fewer than two data per 24 hours. Thus, the same experimental approach was applied to time to anthesis in Delphinium cultorum Voss `Magic Fountains' and Stokesia laevis L. `White Parasols', and to survival in D. cultorum. Two hundred and seventy seedlings of D. cultorum and 72 plantlets of S. laevis were grown for 56 days in growth chambers under eighteen 12 hour day/12 hour night combinations of six day and six night temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C). Ninety plants of D. cultorum were harvested after 13, 34, or 56 days, and 36 plants of S. laevis after 34 or 56 days. For each event of interest (anthesis or death), one datum per plant was recorded, consisting of time elapsed when either the event occurred, or the plant was harvested, whichever came first. Each datum was paired with an indicator of whether the plant was harvested prior to the event being observed. Data were analyzed using time—to—event data analysis procedures. Several parametric distributions fitted the data equally well, and both day and night temperature had strong effects on time to anthesis and survival time. However, in contrast with biomass production, DAT was quite sufficient to account for timing of these developmental events in relation to temperature. Addition of Tdiff contributed marginally to the fit to the data, but the magnitude of the effect was considerably smaller. Within the range of temperatures likely to be encountered in cultivation, the effect was negligible.
Genhua Niu, Royal Heins, Arthur Cameron and William Carlson
The influence of daily light integral (DLI) before vernalization and vernalization temperature and duration on growth and flower development was determined for seed-propagated perennials Aquilegia ×hybrida Sims `Remembrance', Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet `Sunray', and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. `Hidcote Blue'. Seedlings were grown under two DLIs (4 or 14 mol·m-2·d-l) for 5 weeks before being vernalized at -2.5, 0, 2.5, or 5 °C for 2,4,5, or 8 weeks. `Remembrance' and `Sunray' plants were vernalized in the dark, while `Hidcote Blue' plants were vernalized in light at 5 to 10 μmol·m-2·s-l for 9 hourslday. After vernalization, plants were forced under a 16-h photoperiod in the greenhouse at 20±2 °C. `Remembrance' plants flowered uniformly when vernalized at 0 to 2.5 °C for 2 weeks or longer, and flower number, plant height, time to visible bud or to flower were generally not influenced by vernalization temperature or duration. No `Sunray' plants flowered without vernalization, and only a low percentage flowered with 4-week vernalization. Compared with low DLI, a 14 mol·m-2·d-1 before vernalization delayed flowering by 7 to 20 days in `Remembrance', but there were no substantial differences in flowering characteristics of `Sunray'. `Hidcote Blue' plants were best vernalized in the light at 5 °C for 8 weeks to obtain rapid and uniform flowering and the highest number of inflorescences. Flowering and survival percentages of `Hidcote Blue' were much lower for plants at 14 mol·m-2·d-l DLI compared to 4 mol·m-2·d-1.
Kelly J. Prevete, R. Thomas Fernandez and William B. Miller
Drought stress durations of 2, 4, and 6 days were imposed on Boltonia asteroides `Snowbank', Eupatorium rugosum, and Rudbeckia triloba to determine the effects on carbohydrate partitioning in the plant. Drought stress was imposed on 19 Sept. 1997 on 1.9-L containerized plants. Plants were planted in the field the day following release from stress. Crown and leaf samples of the three species were collected 21, 23, 25 Sept. 1997 and 30 Jan. and 4 May 1998 and were analyzed for low molecular weight sugars and fructans. The species differed in the time it took for longer chain fructans to break down to shorter chain fructans and low molecular weight sugars (glucose, fructose). The drought tolerant Boltonia and Rudbeckia had shifts from longer chain to shorter chain fructans by day 4 of stress. Boltonia had a change in carbohydrate partitioning in the leaf tissue, while Rudbeckia had a change in crown tissue carbohydrate partitioning. Eupatorium did not have a shift in longer chain fructans to shorter chain fructans in crown tissue until day six of stress. The slower shift from longer chain fructans to shorter chain fructans by Eupatorium, compared to Boltonia and Rudbeckia, could explain the lack of drought tolerance of Eupatorium. The shift from high molecular weight sugars to low molecular weight sugars suggests that the higher molecular weight sugars broke down to lower molecular weight sugars in response to drought stress.