Data supports the success of Colorado Master Gardener sm (MG) of Boulder County outreach beyond the Cooperative Extension office at outlying clinic sites. Initially unique in Colorado, MG plant clinics at area nurseries and garden centers has gained acceptance in other counties of Colorado. Exploration of benefits and investments for programs interested in expanding outreach to the public are discussed to provide a blueprint for clinics start-up. MG clinics are set up to provide answers to questions from the public on Friday through Sundays from April through mid-July. This schedule, coupled with the Monday through Friday MG desk hours, provides seven day per week access to the public during the busiest part of the growing season. Clinics are conveniently located in all county communities at Green Industry locations. Participating businesses consider the clinics a benefit worth investing IN and justification of sites is uniform. Additional single-day clinics have spun off as an addition to fixed clinic schedule. High requirement of staff time, increased sample load and resource investment is offset by the benefits of increased visibility of program in the community leading to increased recruitment of volunteers. Knowledge gained by the public has brought about measurable positive changes in pesticide use and responsible cultural practices. Volunteer retention is favorably affected with increased flexibility of scheduling opportunities and communications. Information on setting up clinic sites, what the sites receive, staff time and services requirements, and refinements as a result of clinic survey will be given.
Carol A. O'Meara* and Kerrie B. Badertscher
Edward Moydell, Robert Lyons, Robin Morgan, Frederick Roberts, James Swasey and Erich Rudyj
Universities are attempting to enhance the quality of their academic and research endeavors as competition increases for students, faculty, and funding. To further its mission of providing excellence in education, research, and extension, the University of Delaware (UD) has created a number of Centers and Institutes devoted to providing leadership to a particular field of study. Because of its unique location in the “hotbed of public horticulture,” UD is interested in establishing an interdisciplinary Center in Public Horticulture. The objective of this study was to create an initial plan for a Center in Public Horticulture at UD outlining its mission, goals, objectives, structure, and function. The plan resulted from an internal environmental assessment of the Plant and Soil Sciences Department at UD, an external environmental assessment of the field of public horticulture, and an analysis of existing Centers and Institutes at UD. This qualitative study utilized surveys, interviews, and focus groups with selected internal and external stakeholders from academia, the green industry, government, and public gardens. Internal stakeholders, in the resulting data, emphasized the Center's role in engaging undergraduate and graduate students and conducting relevant research. External stakeholders indicated that the Center may also focus on providing continuing education or certification programs to public horticulture professionals. The research regarding existing Centers and Institutes produced a variety of recommendations regarding the Center's structure, governance, funding, research activities, and partnerships and collaborations.
James P. Romer, Jeffery K. Iles and Cynthia L. Haynes
Crabapples (Malus spp.) are commonly planted ornamental trees in public and private landscapes. Hundreds of selections are available that represent a wide range of growth habits, ornamental traits, and varying degrees of resistance/susceptibility to disease. We distributed 1810 questionnaires in 13 states (Oregon, Washington, Utah, Colorado, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania) to members of either nursery and landscape associations or the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ACLA, Herndon, Va.) to identify crabapple preferences across a broad geographic region of the United States. We also were interested in learning if regional disease problems were important to green-industry professionals as they decide which crabapples to include in their inventories. Our respondent population numbered 511 (28.2% response rate). A large percentage of respondents (79.4%) said their retail clients focused mostly on fl ower color when choosing crabapples for the home landscape, while commercial clients showed slightly more interest in growth habit (32.5%) than fl ower color (28.7%). `Prairifire' was identified by respondents in all regions, except the west-central (Colorado and Utah), as the crabapple most frequently recommended to clients when tree size is not important. Respondents in the west-central region most often (48.7%) recommend the fruitless selection `Spring Snow'. Respondents in all regions, except the west-central, identified apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) as the most prevalent crabapple disease and named scab-susceptible `Radiant' as the selection most frequently discontinued.
Gary L. Wade, Joan E. Marsh and Mark Banta
In June, 1988, an Extension advisory committee of landscape professionals met in Atlanta to discuss educational needs of the industry. Representatives from commercial, municipal, Institutional, recreational and private landscape operations present unanimously Identified the need for employee training materials as a top priority. A sub-committee composed of Extension agents, Extension Specialists and landscapes then spent months examining training aids from other states and concluded most were not pertinent to the southeastern U.S. As a result, a series of locally produced employee training videos were proposed. With funding from various landscape firms and the landscape division of the Georgia Green Industry Association, an Atlanta based videographer was hired. Scripts are written and edited by a team of Extension Agents, Extension Specialists and landscape professionals. Extension agents then direct the filming and help edit and produce the final product. To date, two videos have been released and four more are in production. Each video is packaged with an instructor's manual, multiple choice exam and evaluation form. A great deal of support and enthusiasm from both the landscape industry and Extension administration has resulted from this team approach to Extension programming.
Ann Marie VanDerZanden, David Sandrock and David Kopsell
Horticulture graduates entering the landscape (design, installation, and maintenance) segment of the green industry will be faced with a myriad of complicated decision scenarios. Graduates must be able to integrate their understanding of plant science, environmental and physical site constraints, and the human impact on built and natural landscapes to make complex decisions. The objectives of this project were to develop an online case study for use in landscape management and landscape construction courses, and to determine students' perceptions of using this virtual case study to practice active problem solving in landscape horticulture. After completing a scenario from the online case study, students were asked to complete a 20-question survey instrument consisting of open- and close-ended questions evaluating the case study. Sixty-nine surveys were returned and useable, for a response rate of 76.6%. Overall student attitudes and perceptions of the online case study were positive. Participants felt comfortable using the web-based format (4.3 of 5), and felt it was an effective way to deliver information (4.1). Furthermore, participants rated their ability to summarize the scenario data as 4.2 and also felt confident in their ability (4.1) to make a landscape management recommendation to the homeowner.
Kristin L. Getter and D. Bradley Rowe
As forests, agricultural fields, and suburban and urban lands are replaced with impervious surfaces resulting from development, the necessity to recover green space is becoming increasingly critical to maintain environmental quality. Vegetated or green roofs are one potential remedy for this problem. Establishing plant material on rooftops provides numerous ecological and economic benefits, including stormwater management, energy conservation, mitigation of the urban heat island effect, and increased longevity of roofing membranes, as well as providing a more aesthetically pleasing environment in which to work and live. Furthermore, the construction and maintenance of green roofs provide business opportunities for nurseries, landscape contractors, irrigation specialists, and other green industry members while addressing the issues of environmental stewardship. This paper is a review of current knowledge regarding the benefits of green roofs, plant selection and culture, and barriers to their acceptance in the United States. Because of building weight restrictions and costs, shallow-substrate extensive roofs are much more common than deeper intensive roofs. Therefore, the focus of this review is primarily on extensive green roofs.
Paul R. Fantz and Donglin Zhang
Horticultural Science in the past quarter of a century has been shifting to increased emphasis on ornamental plants due to the growth of the modern green industry. Numerous species are being introduced into the exterior and interior landscapes. For popular species, the cultivar, as defined by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP), has become the basic taxon of cultivated plants. Named ornamental plant cultivars are rising at a rapid rate creating identification and segregation problems in the landscape industry, nurseries, botanic gardens, arboreta, and breeding programs. Government regulations and legal issues are beginning to infringe as solutions to the problems. There is a critical need existing for taxonomic research on ornamental cultivars utilizing classical morphological analysis supplemented with modern biotechnological techniques (e.g., anatomical, chemical, cytological, DNA, Sem analysis). Taxonomic research on existing and newer cultivars can provide quantitative botanical descriptions, keys of segregation, correct identification, determination of correct names and synonymy, improved cultivar documentation, and grouping of similar cultivars in large complexes. The taxonomic research is basic science that has immediate applied application within the horticultural society, and results should be published in the journals of ASHS.
Louis B. Anella, Michael A. Schnelle and Dale M. Maronek
Oklahoma Proven (OKP) is a plant promotion and evaluation program designed to help consumers choose plants appropriate for Oklahoma gardens. Aiding consumers with plant selection will lead to greater gardening success, enthusiasm, and increased sales for Oklahoma green industries. There are two major facets to the program: marketing, coordinated by Dr. Lou Anella, and evaluation, coordinated by Dr. Michael Schnelle. Plants to be promoted by OKP will be selected by an OKP executive committee based on recommendations from an OKP advisory committee comprised of industry professionals, cooperative extension specialists and educators, Oklahoma Botanical Garden and Arboretum affiliate members, and Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture faculty. Plants chosen for OKP must meet the following selection criteria: appropriate for gardens throughout the state of Oklahoma; readily available in the trade; limited input required, i.e. few pest or disease problems, tolerant of Oklahoma's diverse soil types and weather conditions; noninvasive; can be profitably produced. The OKP Advisory Board selected the following OKP Selections for 2000: Taxodium distichum; Spiraea japonica `Magic Carpet'; Verbena canadensis `Homestead Purple'; and Scaevola aemula. Promotional materials, such as posters and signs, will be available just after the first of the year, and the promotional push will begin in early March. Posters and signs will be distributed to retailers throughout the state free-of-charge and pot stakes and hang tags will be sold to wholesalers as a means of generating income for the Oklahoma Proven program. OKP plants will also be promoted through the television show “Oklahoma Gardening,” extension newsletters, and the press.
William E. Klingeman*, Darren K. Robinson and Gary L. McDaniel
Mugwort, or false chrysanthemum (Artemisia vulgaris L) is a well-adapted invasive plant that presents increasing management challenges to agricultural producers, Green Industry professionals and homeowners across portions of the eastern U.S. The ability of mugwort to regenerate from cut rhizome sections has not been adequately quantified for substrates that are typical of landscapes and nursery fields, container nurseries, and propagation beds. Cut rhizome sections were analyzed by rhizome color, length, and the presence or absence of a leaf scale. Media substrates included pine bark, sand, and soil. Rhizomes darken with time and color did not account for differences in growth among treatments. When grown in pine bark, sand, and soil substrates during 45-d trials, 85%, 78%, and 69% of 2 cm-long rhizome sections produced both roots and shoots. These results contrast with previous research. When rhizome fragments 0.5 cm long did not include a leaf scale, slightly fewer than 31% produced both roots and shoots in soil. Fewer rhizomes survived in soil, but root and shoot fresh masses of soil-grown rhizomes were greater than rhizomes that were regenerated in pine bark and sand. When rhizome sections had a leaf scale, survival, fresh masses of roots and shoots, shoot height, leaf number and root lengths were greater, regardless of substrate type. Root initials emerged in the internode between leaf scales and also adjacent to leaf scales. Shoot emergence preceded root emergence from rhizome sections. Growers, landscape managers and homeowners should scout regularly and initiate aggressive controls when mugwort populations are found.
Jon H. Traunfeld and D.M. Kafami
Patuxent Institution, a maximum security prison in central Maryland, enlisted Maryland Cooperative Extension (MCE) in 1996 to develop a master gardener (MG) program for inmates as part of its horticultural therapy program. The twin goals are to improve inmate social and coping skills and provide vocational training in horticulture. The program has graduated 30 certified master gardeners over three training cycles. Selected trainees are carefully screened and must complete a preliminary horticulture course before entering the MG program. To earn the MG certificate, inmates receive 65 hours of training, pass a 100-question closed-book exam, and contribute 40 hours of service to the program. The inmates apply their knowledge to a 2-acre garden site that includes a production greenhouse. Placing released inmates in green industry jobs is an important program goal. The program has two unique features: 1) inmates are taught by MG from surrounding counties and MCE faculty. MG volunteers who present subject matter, earn volunteer credit for their participation, gain experience in a horticultural therapy setting, and express a high degree of satisfaction teaching and interacting with inmates. 2) All horticultural crops are produced organically by the inmates (all of whom have a substance abuse history) to demonstrate that life can be nurtured without chemical substances. One self-report research instrument showed that participants had a decreased vulnerability to addiction.