Four herbaceous perennials Aquilegia caerulea `McKana's Giant', Gaillardia aristata, Gypsophila paniculata `Fairy's Pink', and Callirhoe involucrata were subjected to increasing levels of drought stress and evaluated for ornamental quality and performance in the landscape. Drought stress was imposed by irrigation treatments of 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) in 1994. Irrigation treatments resulted in Aquilegia exhibiting a decline in plant growth and appearance below the 50% ET0 treatment. Callirhoe grown at the 100% ET0 irrigation treatment were larger than the plants in any other treatment. Gaillardia receiving some irrigation (25% to 100% ET0) were generally larger than those that received no supplemental irrigation (0% ET0). A decline in plant appearance and growth was observed with Gypsophila with lowering irrigation treatments.
David Hillock and James E. Klett
Yiwei Jiang and Robert N. Carrow
Canopy reflectance has the potential to determine turfgrass shoot status under drought stress conditions. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship of turf quality and leaf firing versus narrow-band canopy spectral reflectance within 400 to 1100 nm for different turfgrass species and cultivars under drought stress. Sods of four bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon L. × C. transvaalensis), three seashore paspalums (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), and st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and three seeded tall fescues (Festuca arundinacea) were used. Turf quality decreased 12% to 27% and leaf firing increased 12% to 55% in 12 grasses in response to drought stress imposed over three dry-down cycles. The peak correlations occurred at 673 to 693 nm and 667 to 687 nm for turf quality and leaf firing in bermudagrasses, respectively. All three tall fescues had the strongest correlation at 671 nm for both turf quality and leaf firing. The highest correlations in the near-infrared at 750, 775, or 870 nm were found in three seashore paspalums, while at 687 to 693 nm in Zoysiagrass and st. augustinegrass. Although all grasses exhibited some correlations between canopy reflectance and turf quality or leaf firing, significant correlation coefficients (r) were only observed in five grasses. Multiple linear regression models based on selected wavelengths for turf quality and leaf firing were observed for 7 (turf quality) and 9 (leaf firing) grasses. Wavelengths in the photosynthetic region at 658 to 700 nm or/and near-infrared from 700 to 800 nm predominated in models of most grasses. Turf quality and leaf firing could be well predicted in tall fescue by using models, evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R 2) above 0.50. The results indicated that correlations of canopy reflectance versus turf quality and leaf firing varied with turfgrass species and cultivars, and the photosynthetic regions specifically from 664 to 687 nm were relatively important in determining turf quality and leaf firing in selected bermudagrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass and st. augustinegrass under drought stress.
Rodney T. Fernandez, Ronald L. Perry and James A. Flore
`Imperial Gala' on M.9 EMLA, MM.111 and Mark rootstocks were planted in a rain exclusion shelter. Two drought stress periods lasting approximately 1 month each were imposed during 1991. Water was supplied at 2 liters per day per tree before and after each drought cycle while water was withheld from half of the trees during the drought stresses. Maximal and variable chlorophyll fluorescence and fluorescence quenching were significantly reduced by the drought stress with M.111 generally affected first and with the largest difference between drought and control followed by Mark and then M.9. Leaf and stomatal conductance, assimilation and transpiration usually occurred first and were lowest for M.9 followed by Mark and then M.111 during the first stress cycle while Mark responded more rapidly and to a greater extent than M.9 and M.111 during the second stress. Water potential was lower for the stressed trees during both stress periods but osmotic and turgor potentials were reduced only during the first stress period. Changes in water relations were noticed first and to a greater extent for Mark followed by M.9 with M.111 exhibiting the least sensitivity and differences.
Grady L. Miller
The effects of several soil amendments, following a single filling of core aerification holes, on growth and transpiration of `Tifdwarf' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy] were examined during drought stress. Soil amendments had variable effects on turf quality. In general, turf grown in ZeoPro®- and Profile®-amended sand had the highest quality. Data indicated that the evaluated soil amendments have the potential to influence soil water content, ultimately influencing transpirational response to drought stress. Amended sand contained 1% to 16% more transpirable water compared with non-amended sand. Turfgrass grown in Axis®- and Isolite®-amended sand required 0.4 to 1.4 days longer to reach the endpoint (transpiration rate of drought stressed plants <12% of well-watered plants) during a period of rapid water depletion. Data from this study suggest that the total volume these amendments occupied in the root zone, following a single filling of core aerification holes in sand, may positively influence soil moisture status, resulting in an increase in drought avoidance.
Kelly J. Prevete, R. Thomas Fernandez and William B. Miller
Drought stress durations of 2, 4, and 6 days were imposed on Boltonia asteroides `Snowbank', Eupatorium rugosum, and Rudbeckia triloba to determine the effects on carbohydrate partitioning in the plant. Drought stress was imposed on 19 Sept. 1997 on 1.9-L containerized plants. Plants were planted in the field the day following release from stress. Crown and leaf samples of the three species were collected 21, 23, 25 Sept. 1997 and 30 Jan. and 4 May 1998 and were analyzed for low molecular weight sugars and fructans. The species differed in the time it took for longer chain fructans to break down to shorter chain fructans and low molecular weight sugars (glucose, fructose). The drought tolerant Boltonia and Rudbeckia had shifts from longer chain to shorter chain fructans by day 4 of stress. Boltonia had a change in carbohydrate partitioning in the leaf tissue, while Rudbeckia had a change in crown tissue carbohydrate partitioning. Eupatorium did not have a shift in longer chain fructans to shorter chain fructans in crown tissue until day six of stress. The slower shift from longer chain fructans to shorter chain fructans by Eupatorium, compared to Boltonia and Rudbeckia, could explain the lack of drought tolerance of Eupatorium. The shift from high molecular weight sugars to low molecular weight sugars suggests that the higher molecular weight sugars broke down to lower molecular weight sugars in response to drought stress.
Bingru Huang and Hongwen Gao
To investigate shoot physiological responses to drought stress of six tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) cultivars representing several generations of turfgrass improvement, forage-type `Kentucky-31', turf-type `Phoenix', `Phoenix', and `Houndog V', and dwarf-type `Rebel Jr` and `Bonsai' were grown in well-watered or drying soil for 35 days in a greenhouse. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (Tr), relative water content (RWC), and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) declined during drought progression in all cultivars, but the time and the severity of reductions varied with cultivars and physiological factors. Pn, RWC, gs, and Tr decreased significantly for `Rebel Jr', `Bonsai', and `Phoenix' when soil water content declined to 20% after 9 days of treatment (DOT) and for `Falcon II', `Houndog V', and `Kentucky-31' when soil water content dropped to 10% at 15 DOT. A significant decrease in Fv/Fm was not observed in drought-stressed plants until 21 DOT for `Rebel Jr', `Bonsai', and `Phoenix' and 28 DOT for `Houndog V', `Kentucky-31', and `Falcon II'. The decline in Pn was due mostly to internal water deficit and stomatal closure under short-term or mild drought-stress conditions. After a prolonged period of drought (35 DOT), higher Pn in `Falcon II', `Houndog V', and `Kentucky-31' could be attributed to their higher Fv/Fm.
Bingru Huang, Jack Fry and Bin Wang
Understanding factors associated with drought resistance and recovery from drought stress in tall fescue (Festuca arundinaces Schreb.) is important for developing resistant cultivars and effective management strategies. Our objective was to investigate water relations, photosynthetic efficiency, and canopy characteristics of tall fescue cultivars (forage-type `Kentucky-31', turf-type `Mustang', and dwarf-type `MIC18') in responses to drought stress and subsequent recovery in the field and greenhouse. During drought stress under field conditions, `MIC18' had lower turf quality, more severe leaf wilting, and higher canopy temperature than `Mustang' and `Kentucky-31', indicating that `MIC18' was more drought-sensitive. The greenhouse study comparing `K-31' and `MIC18' showed that leaf water status, chlorophyll fluorescence, canopy green leaf biomass, and lead area index of both cultivars declined as soil dried. Reductions in relative water content, leaf water potential, chlorophyll fluorescence, canopy green leaf biomass, and leaf area index were more severe and occurred sooner during dry down for `MIC18' than for `Kentucky-31'. After rewatering following 14 days of stress, leaf water deficit and turf growth recovered, to a greater degree for `Kentucky-31' than for `MIC18'. However, soil drying for 21 days caused long-term negative effects on leaf photosynthetic efficiency and canopy characteristics for both cultivars.
Drought is a major factor limiting the growth of turfgrasses in many areas. The functional relationship of drought stress and accumulation of various ions in turfgrasses is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of drought on root growth and accumulation of several major nutrients in three tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars varying in drought tolerance (Falcon II = Houndog V > Rebel Jr). Grasses were grown in well-watered or drying (nonirrigated) soil for 35 days in a greenhouse. Drought conditions limited total root length to a greater extent for `Rebel Jr' than for `Falcon II' and `Houndog V', while specific root length (SRL) was greater in `Falcon II' and `Houndog V' than in `Rebel Jr'. Concentrations of N, P, and Mg decreased, whereas those of K, Ca, and Fe increased, in shoots of drought-stressed plants of all three cultivars. Root N was not affected, but root P decreased in `Rebel Jr', and root K decreased in all three cultivars under drought conditions. Drought reduced the proportions of N and P in shoots and increased those in roots, while increasing the proportion of K in shoots and decreasing that in roots. During drought stress, both `Falcon II' and `Houndog V' maintained higher K concentration in shoots, and `Falcon II' in roots, than did `Rebel Jr', but `Rebel Jr' and `Houndog V' had higher Fe concentration in shoots than did `Falcon II'. The higher K and lower Fe accumulations in shoots could contribute to better drought tolerance of tall fescue cultivars.
Hiphil S. Clemente and Thomas E. Marler
Two studies were conducted with `Known You 1' and `Sunrise' papaya seedlings to determine the combined influence of wind and drought stress on growth. For each study, 4-week-old nursery plants were transplanted into 2.6-L containers and placed in a protected site with rain exclusion provided by polypropylene cover. Industrial fans were used to provide unidirectional wind of ≈2 m/s for 12 hours per day to half of the plants; the remaining half of the plants received no wind. One half of the plants for each cultivar and wind combination were designated as well-watered and received daily irrigation. The remaining half of the plants were designated as drought-stressed and received 25% to 50% of the water applied to the well-watered plants. Plants were grown for 3 weeks under these experimental conditions. There were no interactions between the drought and wind main effects. The reduction in height, trunk cross-sectional area, total plant dry weight, and relative growth rate below that for control plants was similar for drought stress or wind stress. Wind stress reduced growth of `Sunrise' plants more than `Known You 1' plants in both studies. Although the main effects did not interact, the combination of drought and wind stress reduced growth of papaya seedlings more than did either main effect alone. The greatest wind load from trade winds occurs on Guam during the annual dry season. These data indicate that chronic wind stress during the dry season may be more detrimental to growth of papaya seedlings than during the rainy season or under sufficient irrigation practices.
Hiphil S. Clemente and Thomas E. Marler
Field-grown `Red Lady' papaya (Carica papaya L.) plants were used to measure foliar gas-exchange responses to rapid changes in irradiance levels to determine if papaya stomata are able to track simulated sun-to-cloud cover transitions. Natural sunlight and neutral shade cloth placed over the leaf were used to provide high photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of about 2000 μmol·m-2·s-1 until leaves reached steady state within the cuvette, followed by three minutes with low PPF of about 325 μmol·m-2·s-1, and a return to PPF of about 2000 μmol·m-2·s-1. Net CO2 assimilation (A) declined from an initial 20 μmol·m-2·s-1 to about 9 μmol·m-2·s-1 within 20 seconds of initiating low PPF, and remained fairly stable for the duration of the three minutes of low PPF. Stomatal conductance (gs) declined within 60 seconds of initiating low PPF, from 385 to about 340 μmol·m-2·s-1 during the three minutes duration of low PPF. Following the return to high PPF, A rapidly increased to about 18 μmol·m-2·s-1, then gradually increased to the original value. After a lag of about 1 minute following the return to high PPF, gs began to increase and returned to the original value after three minutes. Container-grown `Tainung #1' papaya plants were used in a second study to determine the influence of mild drought stress on gas-exchange responses to rapid irradiance transitions. For drought-stressed plants, gs declined to a greater magnitude following the high-to-low PPF transition, and gs and A recovered more slowly following the transition from low-to-high PPF than for well-watered plants. Water use efficiency declined to a minimum immediately following the high-to-low PPF transition for both sets of plants, but recovered more rapidly for drought-stressed plants. These results indicate that papaya stomata are able to track rapid changes in irradiance, and mild drought stress enhances the tracking response.