In an effort to identify new herbicides for vegetables crops, broccoli (Brassica oleracea) cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), carrot (Daucus carota), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa), bulb onion (Allium cepa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were evaluated in the field for tolerance to eight herbicides. The following herbicides and rates, expressed in a.i. lb/acre, were applied preemergence: carfentrazone, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2; flufenacet, 0.525; flumioxazin, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.25; halosulfuron, 0.032 and 0.047; isoxaben, 0.25 and 0.50; rimsulfuron, 0.016 and 0.031; SAN 582, 0.94 and 1.20 and sulfentrazone, 0.15 and 0.25 (1.000 lb/acre = 1.1208 kg·ha-1). Tolerance was evaluated by measuring crop stand, injury and biomass. Several leads for new vegetable herbicides were identified. Lettuce demonstrated tolerance to carfentrazone at 0.05 and 0.10 lb/acre. Cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of halosulfuron at 0.032 and 0.047 lb/acre. Broccoli, cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of SAN 582 at 0.94 lb/acre. Broccoli and carrot were tolerant of sulfentrazone at 0.15 lb/acre.
Cantaloupes treated with 135° F water for 15, 30, or 60 seconds had significantly less stem-scar mold and surface mold than melons treated with 71° water (wet check). A 30-sec immersion controlled stem-scar mold slightly better than a 15-sec immersion. The addition of 600 ppm captan to the water at 135° significantly reduced stem-scar mold and surface mold compared to the hot-water treatment alone. Alternaria, Fusarium, and Rhizopus spp. were the fungi most frequently associated with these infections. Quality was evaluated after holding the melons for 7 days at 46° plus an additional 3 days at 72°.
In 3 of the 6 tests, the hot-water treatments significantly increased suture browning of the melons compared to the wet check. The fungicide did not influence suture browning.
General appearance of the melons treated at 130°, 135° or 145° was significantly better than that of the wet check (71°) melons, because of mold control by the hot water.
Resistance to watermelon mosaic virus 1 in derivatives of Cucumis melo L., Plant Introduction (PI) 180280, was found to be controlled by a single dominant gene. The gene symbol Wmv-1 is proposed.
Four seedbed configurations, north-sloped, south-sloped, mid-bed trenched, and standard flat-topped beds, were evaluated for influence on plant growth, development, and yield in ‘TAM Uvalde’ muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.). The most desirable growth rate and yield pattern was produced in mid-bed trenches. This configuration significantly increased early yield. Early season yield (June harvest) was 8670 kg/ha or 48% of total yield for the mid-bed trenched treatment as compared with 7170 (38%), 4730 (32%), and 3380 kg/ha (20%), respectively, for the south-sloped, standard, and north-sloped beds.
The salt tolerance of 3 muskmelon cultivars (Cucumis melo L. cv. Top Mark, PMR 45, and Hale's Best) was determined in plots artificially salinized with NaCl and CaCl2. Marketable yield, total dry weight, vine dry weight, and total fruit weight of all cultivars decreased with increasing salinity. ‘Top Mark’, the highest yielding cultivar at low salinity, yielded least at high salinity. ‘PMR 45’ was the least affected with increasing salinity. Na and Cl in the leaves and fruit and % soluble solids in the fruit all increased with increasing salinity levels.
Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cvs. Superstar and Mission) transplants were grown in cellular seedling trays of polystyrene or styrofoam, with individual cells ranging in volume from 7 to 100 cm3, transplanted to the field, and grown to maturity in Florida and Indiana during the 1993 and 1994 growing seasons. Seedling leaf area, shoot and root weights before transplanting, and shoot dry weight 20 days after transplanting increased linearly with increasing cell volume in Florida. Thirty days after transplanting, vine length showed significant linear and quadratic trends with respect to cell volume in Indiana. In Florida, early and total yields increased linearly as transplant cell volume increased for `Mission' in both years and for `Superstar' in 1994. In Indiana, early yields increased linearly as transplant cell volume increased for `Mission' in 1994 and for `Superstar' in both years, but cell volume did not consistently affect total yield. Transplant tray effects on early and total yield unrelated to linear or quadratic effects of cell volume occurred in both locations, but these effects were not consistent.
. Pech, J.C. Bouzayen, M. Latche, A. Romojaro, F. 2001a The use of ethylene-suppressed lines to assess differential sensitivity to ethylene of the various ripening pathways in cantaloupe melons Physiol. Plant. 113
The effect of summer cover crop and management system on subsequent fall romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and spring muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) growth and yield was evaluated in the Coachella Valley of California from 1999 to 2003. Cover crop treatments included: 1) cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] incorporated into the soil in the fall (CPI), 2) cowpea used as mulch in the fall (CPM), 3) sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] incorporated into the soil in the fall (SGI), and 4) a bare ground control (BG). Management system treatments included: 1) conventional system (CON), 2) integrated crop management (ICM), and 3) organic system (ORG). Cowpea cover crop, either incorporated or used as surface mulch, increased lettuce growth and yield by increasing biomass allocation to lettuce leaf and leaf area growth. Cowpea mulch decreased muskmelon leaf and biomass growth and reduced muskmelon yield. Sudangrass produced more biomass than cowpea and reduced lettuce growth and yield. However, in the following spring, the SGI treatment had the highest muskmelon yield. Lettuce growth was significantly affected by management system, while muskmelon growth at the early stage was unaffected. The organic system reduced both lettuce and muskmelon yield compared with CON and ICM management systems.
Root Feed is a product developed by Stoller Enterprises, Inc., to enhance crop productivity and quality. Weekly application of Root Feed in drip-irrigated crops was found to be the most effective frequency of application. Root Feed increased the number of the largest melons and total melons by over 50% and also increased fruit °Brix (soluble solids). Moreover, it was observed that a number of pests were suppressed with Root Feed, namely, whiteflies, a cucurbit virus, and downy mildew.
Concentrations of soluble solids (SSC) in fruits of Cucumis melo L., cv. PMR 45, were positively correlated with 2 physical measures of soil samples from producing fields: a) the degree of cracking which occurred during dehydration, and b) the rapidity with which water or a CaSC>4 solution percolated the soils. Very low SSC was associated with sandy, non-cracking soils, which in addition permitted only low rates of percolation. Low SSC also was found to be associated with soils having subsurface hardpans or dense subsoil strata, and also with the distance to lower bounds of plant containers and experimentally placed barriers which obstructed downward root growth. SSC, under adverse conditions, varied further as a function of fruit numbers per plant.