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Hong Y. Yoon, Sung R. Kim, Seung W. Lee and In S. Chung

The effects of various media, varying concentrations of sucrose, plant growth regulators, and inorganic salts such as KNO3, KH2PO4 and NH4NO3 on callus Formation and anthocyanin synthesis in carrot cell culture were studied. The greatest calli and anthocyanin pigments were obtained by SH and Nitsch & Nitsch medium, respectively. Nitsch & Nitsch medium supplemented with 55g/l sucrose, 0.2g/l NAA and 0.1g/l BA was effective for both callus and anthocyanin production. Anthocyanin synthesis was accelerated by increasing concentration of KNO3, while suppressed by NH4NO3. However, KH2PO4 promoted anthocyanin synthesis at half strength. These results suggest that physiological factors on anthocyanin production by plant cell culture could provide the possibility of application to other crops for secondary metabolites production and mass production system establishment of anthocyanin as an important natural pigment in cosmetic and food industry.

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Nicholi Vorsa and James J. Polashock

The flavonoids of american cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are documented to be beneficial for human health. Among their benefits is a high antioxidant potential, with anthocyanin glycosides being the main contributors. Flavonoid glucose conjugates are reported to be more bioavailable than those with other sugar conjugates. The anthocyanin glycosides of V. macrocarpon fruit are mainly galactosides and arabinosides of the aglycones, cyanidin and peonidin, with less than 8% glucosides. In contrast, the fruit anthocyanins of another cranberry species, V. oxycoccus L. were found to be largely glucosides of cyanidin and peonidin. Interspecific hybrids between these two species were intermediate to the parental species in the proportion of fruit anthocyanin glucosides. About half the progeny (1:1 segregation) in a backcross population (to V. macrocarpon) maintained the relatively high anthocyanin glucoside ratio. In this study, we demonstrate the genetic manipulation of anthocyanin glycosylation in cranberry using interspecific hybridization, resulting in dramatically increased glucose-conjugated anthocyanins.

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Ro-Na Bae, Ki-Woo Kim, Tae-Choon Kim and Seung-Koo Lee

Anatomical observations of anthocyanin rich cells in `Fuji' apple skins were carried out by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Apple skins with fully developed red color had more layers of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells than those of green skins. The density of anthocyanin was high in cells of the outer layer of the fruit skins and gradually decreased inward to the flesh. Anthocyanins were frequently found in clusters or in agglomerations that were round in the epidermal cells of the red skins. They accumulated in the inner side of developed vacuoles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the shapes of anthocyanins were cluster style, indeterminable forms, or complete spheres. Anthocyanin seemed to be synthesized around the tonoplast and condensed on the inward side of the vacuole. There was no distinct envelope membrane on the anthocyanin granule in the vacuoles of apple skin cells.

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Mustafa Ozgen, Faith J. Wyzgoski, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr, Aparna Gazula, A. Raymond Miller, Joseph C. Scheerens, R. Neil Reese and Shawn R. Wright

, 2001 ). Among commonly consumed produce, fruits of Rubus spp. are known to have strong antioxidant capacity mainly as a result of high levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds ( Wu et al., 2004 ). However, phenolic compound levels and

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Peter J. Mes* and James R. Myers

Tomato lines carrying the genes Aft, atv, Abg, hp-1, and an as yet undetermined gene from the introgression line LA2099 have been combined to produce fruit with elevated anthocyanin content. The antioxidant activity of juice made from anthocyanin-expressing tomatoes was compared to juices made from tomatoes with varied carotenoid content. The contribution of anthocyanin to the total antioxidant activity of the whole fruit in current material is small, but with potential for significant improvement. The increase in flavonoids in the elevated anthocyanin lines has increased water-soluble antioxidant activity of the fruit in vitro.

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Patrick P. Moore

Measuring intact fruit with a colorimeter could be a quick way to estimate anthocyanin concentration and reduce waste disposal. Five fresh fruit from each of 134 plots were measured with a Minolta tristimulus colorimeter in 1994. Samples were frozen and anthocyanins extracted with acidified ethanol and measured with a spectrophotometer. The hue angle and anthocyanin concentration had r 2 = 0.51. L*, a*, b* and C* were significantly correlated with anthocyanin concentration with r 2 = 0.31, 0.32, 0.42, and 0.34, respectively. In 1995, five fruit from each of 20 plots were measured as before. In 1995, the hue angle and anthocyanin concentration had r 2 = 35. A regression equation with hue angle, b* and a* estimated anthocyanin concentration with R 2 = 0.62. In 1995, the same 20 samples were also measured with a colorimeter immediately after thawing. The hue angle and anthocyanin concentration had r 2 = 0.55. A regression equation with hue angle, b* and L* estimated anthocyanin concentration with R 2 = 0.76. It may be possible to estimate anthocyanin concentration by measuring intact fruit with a colorimeter after freezing and thawing the samples.

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Artemio Z. Tulio Jr., Mustafa Ozgen, R. Neil Reese, Steven J. Schwartz, Qingguo Tian, Gary D. Stoner, A. Raymond Miller and Joseph C. Scheerens

Anthocyanins in black raspberry extracts may play a key role in the regulation of oncogene expression in cancer cell cultures. Variations in anthocyanin levels of `Jewel', `Mac Black', and `Bristol' black raspberries grown at seven commercial farms in Ohio were investigated using HPLC and uv-vis spectrometry. Cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cy-3-rut) and cyanidin-3-(2G-xylorutinoside) (cy-3-2-xyl), the two major compounds present in all cultivars (≈2:1), were highly correlated with total anthocyanin contents. Sample variation in total anthocyanin, cy-3-rut, and cy-3-2-xyl levels was greater among commercial farms than among cultivars grown at the same location. The antioxidant activities of cy-3-rut, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside (cy-3,5-diglc), and pelargonidin-3-glucoside from purified extracts were determined using the free radical scavenging assays DPPH and ABTS, and the ferric reducing power assay FRAP. All pure anthocyanins showed strong antioxidant potentials except for cy-3,5-diglc. Cy-3-rut was identified and quantified as the dominant anthocyanin in black raspberries and was also the most potent antioxidant. Results suggest that anthocyanins, cy-3-rut in particular, may function as the primary antioxidants in black raspberries. Genetic and environmental variation in the anthocyanin contents necessitate characterization of the antioxidant and anthocyanin levels in fruits from any given source prior to measuring biological and medicinal activities.

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Lucia E. Villavicencio, Sylvia M. Blankenship, G. Craig Yencho, Judith F. Thomas and C. David Raper

measured at 280 nm using a spectrophotometer (Spectronic 200). Anthocyanin content. Anthocyanins were measured only for the second replicate of the experiment. Six roots per combination of growth temperature and curing level were used. The content

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Christine M. Bradish, Gad G. Yousef, Guoying Ma, Penelope Perkins-Veazie and Gina E. Fernandez

locations in central and western North Carolina were evaluated to determine the effects of a warm production climate and high tunnel cultivation on anthocyanin, carotenoid, tocopherol, and ellagitannin content, among a number of other fruit quality factors

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R.J. Griesbach and L. Batdorf

Various forms of Hemerocallis fulva differed in their relative anthocyanin: carotenoid ratios and the type of anthocyanin present. Hemerocallis fulva fm. fulva contained a single anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-rutinoside) and two carotenoids (zeaxanthin and lutein). Hemerocallis fulva fm. rosea contained a single anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-rutinoside) and traces of carotenoids. Hemerocallis fulva fm. disticha contained a single anthocyanin (delphinidin-3-rutinoside) and two carotenoids (zeaxanthin and lutein).