Anatomical observations of anthocyanin rich cells in `Fuji' apple skins were carried out by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Apple skins with fully developed red color had more layers of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells than those of green skins. The density of anthocyanin was high in cells of the outer layer of the fruit skins and gradually decreased inward to the flesh. Anthocyanins were frequently found in clusters or in agglomerations that were round in the epidermal cells of the red skins. They accumulated in the inner side of developed vacuoles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the shapes of anthocyanins were cluster style, indeterminable forms, or complete spheres. Anthocyanin seemed to be synthesized around the tonoplast and condensed on the inward side of the vacuole. There was no distinct envelope membrane on the anthocyanin granule in the vacuoles of apple skin cells.
Ro-Na Bae, Ki-Woo Kim, Tae-Choon Kim and Seung-Koo Lee
Peter J. Mes* and James R. Myers
Tomato lines carrying the genes Aft, atv, Abg, hp-1, and an as yet undetermined gene from the introgression line LA2099 have been combined to produce fruit with elevated anthocyanin content. The antioxidant activity of juice made from anthocyanin-expressing tomatoes was compared to juices made from tomatoes with varied carotenoid content. The contribution of anthocyanin to the total antioxidant activity of the whole fruit in current material is small, but with potential for significant improvement. The increase in flavonoids in the elevated anthocyanin lines has increased water-soluble antioxidant activity of the fruit in vitro.
Patrick P. Moore
Measuring intact fruit with a colorimeter could be a quick way to estimate anthocyanin concentration and reduce waste disposal. Five fresh fruit from each of 134 plots were measured with a Minolta tristimulus colorimeter in 1994. Samples were frozen and anthocyanins extracted with acidified ethanol and measured with a spectrophotometer. The hue angle and anthocyanin concentration had r 2 = 0.51. L*, a*, b* and C* were significantly correlated with anthocyanin concentration with r 2 = 0.31, 0.32, 0.42, and 0.34, respectively. In 1995, five fruit from each of 20 plots were measured as before. In 1995, the hue angle and anthocyanin concentration had r 2 = 35. A regression equation with hue angle, b* and a* estimated anthocyanin concentration with R 2 = 0.62. In 1995, the same 20 samples were also measured with a colorimeter immediately after thawing. The hue angle and anthocyanin concentration had r 2 = 0.55. A regression equation with hue angle, b* and L* estimated anthocyanin concentration with R 2 = 0.76. It may be possible to estimate anthocyanin concentration by measuring intact fruit with a colorimeter after freezing and thawing the samples.
Artemio Z. Tulio Jr., Mustafa Ozgen, R. Neil Reese, Steven J. Schwartz, Qingguo Tian, Gary D. Stoner, A. Raymond Miller and Joseph C. Scheerens
Anthocyanins in black raspberry extracts may play a key role in the regulation of oncogene expression in cancer cell cultures. Variations in anthocyanin levels of `Jewel', `Mac Black', and `Bristol' black raspberries grown at seven commercial farms in Ohio were investigated using HPLC and uv-vis spectrometry. Cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cy-3-rut) and cyanidin-3-(2G-xylorutinoside) (cy-3-2-xyl), the two major compounds present in all cultivars (≈2:1), were highly correlated with total anthocyanin contents. Sample variation in total anthocyanin, cy-3-rut, and cy-3-2-xyl levels was greater among commercial farms than among cultivars grown at the same location. The antioxidant activities of cy-3-rut, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside (cy-3,5-diglc), and pelargonidin-3-glucoside from purified extracts were determined using the free radical scavenging assays DPPH and ABTS, and the ferric reducing power assay FRAP. All pure anthocyanins showed strong antioxidant potentials except for cy-3,5-diglc. Cy-3-rut was identified and quantified as the dominant anthocyanin in black raspberries and was also the most potent antioxidant. Results suggest that anthocyanins, cy-3-rut in particular, may function as the primary antioxidants in black raspberries. Genetic and environmental variation in the anthocyanin contents necessitate characterization of the antioxidant and anthocyanin levels in fruits from any given source prior to measuring biological and medicinal activities.
Mustafa Ozgen, Faith J. Wyzgoski, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr, Aparna Gazula, A. Raymond Miller, Joseph C. Scheerens, R. Neil Reese and Shawn R. Wright
, 2001 ). Among commonly consumed produce, fruits of Rubus spp. are known to have strong antioxidant capacity mainly as a result of high levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds ( Wu et al., 2004 ). However, phenolic compound levels and
Lucia E. Villavicencio, Sylvia M. Blankenship, G. Craig Yencho, Judith F. Thomas and C. David Raper
measured at 280 nm using a spectrophotometer (Spectronic 200). Anthocyanin content. Anthocyanins were measured only for the second replicate of the experiment. Six roots per combination of growth temperature and curing level were used. The content
Christine M. Bradish, Gad G. Yousef, Guoying Ma, Penelope Perkins-Veazie and Gina E. Fernandez
locations in central and western North Carolina were evaluated to determine the effects of a warm production climate and high tunnel cultivation on anthocyanin, carotenoid, tocopherol, and ellagitannin content, among a number of other fruit quality factors
R.J. Griesbach and L. Batdorf
Various forms of Hemerocallis fulva differed in their relative anthocyanin: carotenoid ratios and the type of anthocyanin present. Hemerocallis fulva fm. fulva contained a single anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-rutinoside) and two carotenoids (zeaxanthin and lutein). Hemerocallis fulva fm. rosea contained a single anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-rutinoside) and traces of carotenoids. Hemerocallis fulva fm. disticha contained a single anthocyanin (delphinidin-3-rutinoside) and two carotenoids (zeaxanthin and lutein).
Changling Zhao, Weiming Guo, Junyu Chen and Zhongchun Jiang*
Mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) flower is one of the candidates for the national flower of the People's Republic of China. Several major anthocyanins from the flowers of P. mume Sieb. et Zucc. were isolated with MeOH-HOAc-water (10:1:9, v/v), and purified by paper chromatography and subsequent column chromatography. Specific chemical reactions, chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses indicated that the anthocyanins in `Nanjing Hongxu' (Nanjing red-bearded) were cyanidin 3-O-(6'-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside) and cyanidin 3-O-(6'-O-galloyl-3'-O-β-glucopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside). Anthocyanins in `Nanjing Hong' (Nanjing red) were cyanidin 3-O-(6'-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-(6'-O-galloyl-β-glucopyranoside) and cyanidin 3-O-(6'-O-E-feruloyl-βglucopyranoside). In addition to contributing to the blue flower color, the anthocyanins may improve the ability of the two cultivars to survive at low temperatures.
Anthocyanin deficient dewberry (Rubus trivialis Michx.) clones with translucent ripe fruit and green canes were studied to determine their possible utilization as a source of marker genes for blackberries. Albino dewberries from two locations designated Bonnette (BON and Harriel (H) were crossed with each other and with normal dewberry (DB). F1 plants were testcrossed. DB X H produced 62 plants all of which had red canes. BON X DB produced 59 plants all of which had red canes. BON X H produced nine plants all of which had green canes. The segregation ratio of each testcross supported the hypothesis that anthocyanin deficiency in dewberry is controlled by a single recessive gene. A recessive allelet known to cause a very low concentration of anthocyanin, giving fruit with yellow color and stems with non-pigmented spines, is probably responsible for the mutant trait. Its simple inheritance provides potential for anthocyanin deficiency to be used as a marker gene.