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James R. Schupp, Thomas M. Kon and H. Edwin Winzeler

withdrawal from legal use ( Greene, 2002 ; McArtney, 2011 ). Two frequently used post-bloom chemical thinners for apple, the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzyladenine and the synthetic auxin 1-napthaleneacetic acid, produce some level of thinning over a range of

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Duane W. Greene, James R. Schupp and H. Edwin Winzeler

been effective and consistent enough to be registered for commercial use. Presently, naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), naphthaleneacetamide, carbaryl, and BA are the compounds most frequently used commercially ( Greene, 2002 ). Each thinning compound has

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Nobuko Sugimoto, A. Daniel Jones and Randolph Beaudry

2-methylbutyl acetate, which confer typical apple aroma characteristics ( Paillard, 1990 ). The esters are largely composed of either straight- or branched-chain alkyl (alcohol-derived) and alkanoate (acid-derived) groups. The ester product is formed

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Víctor Cros, Juan José Martínez-Sánchez and José Antonio Franco

source of bioprotective nutrients: fatty acid ω3, antioxidants, vitamins, and essential amino acids ( Miller et al., 1984 ; Simopoulos and Salem, 1986 ; Simopoulos et al., 1992 ), glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol ( Liu et al., 2000 ; Palaniswamy et al

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Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Luigi Lucini, Elvira Rea and Giuseppe Colla

since ancient times ( Bruneton, 1995 ). The chemical components of artichoke leaves have been studied extensively and have been found to be a rich source of polyphenolic compounds with mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids as the major chemical

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Fatih A. Canli and Hikmet Orhan

growers. Gibberellic acid GA 3 is used to increase the fruit firmness and the fruit size, and to delay maturity in mostly self-fertile and/or high-cropping cherry varieties in British Columbia ( Kappel and MacDonald, 2002 ) and western North America

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Yang Yang, Runfang Zhang, Pingsheng Leng, Zenghui Hu and Man Shen

; Welling and Palva, 2008 ). Salicylic acid is a growth regulator in plants and is involved in many physiological processes ( Hayat et al., 2010 ; Miura and Tada, 2010 ), and plays an important role in both biotic and abiotic stress ( Ananieva et al., 2004

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Paul Randall, Peter Sholberg, Gary Judd and Joan Cossentine

axial fan (Model CFA11512038HS) was positioned in front of the evaporator to direct airflow over the device and circulate the air–acid mixture. Fumigation procedures Determining an effective acetic acid vapor dose to kill diapausing codling moth larvae

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Soon O. Park, Hye Y. Hwang and Kevin M. Crosby

Melon, an economically important horticultural crop grown in many temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions of the world ( Wang et al., 1997 ), is a significant source of ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, folic acid, and potassium ( Lester, 1997

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Yu Wang, Haobo Yang, Shuai Zhong, Xin Liu, Tong Li and Chengwen Zong

China is 7 million kilograms, which is primarily used for producing wine, juice, jam, and preserved products ( Zong et al., 2011 ). Anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenols, and organic acids in V. uliginosum fruit show various biological properties