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A.M. Akl, F.F. Ahmed, F.M. El-Morsy and M.A. Ragab

The positive influence of fertilizing `Red Roomy' grapevines with four biofertilizers (active dry yeast, phosphorene, rhizobacterium, and nitrobein) on berry set and productivity was investigated during 1995 and 1996. The improvement occurred in berry set and yield, as well as physical and chemical properties in vines treated with the four biofertilizers in the following ascending order: active dry yeast, nitrobein, rhizobacterium, and phosphorene. Highly significant differences in characters were observed between treated and untreated vines. The best results with regard to yield and quality of berries was obtained in `Red Roomy' vines biofertilized with phosphorene or rhizobacterium.

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Larry J. Bettiga

Vine growth and yield variables were measured for grape (Vitis vinifera) planted as green-growing and dormant ‘Chardonnay’ benchgrafts during the first 8 years after vineyard establishment. Benchgrafts of ‘Freedom’ and ‘Kober 5BB’ rootstock were evaluated. Vines planted as green-growing benchgrafts had smaller trunk and cordon diameters and lower pruning weights. Growth variables measured were higher for ‘Freedom’ benchgrafts than ‘Kober 5BB’. Yields were higher for vines planted as dormant benchgrafts in three of the first six production years when compared with vines established with green-growing plants. Productivity was higher for vines planted with dormant benchgrafts or grafted on ‘Freedom’ rootstock because the permanent framework of vines in these treatments was fully developed earlier in the training process, which allowed for earlier crop production.

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Ian-Huei Yau, Joan R. Davenport and Michelle M. Moyer

Site selection is critical in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) production. The wine grape industry is expanding in the inland Pacific northwestern United States (IPNW) using traditional means of site evaluation including on physical examination of topography, geomorphology, soil characteristics, and analysis of long-term observations from weather stations. Through the use of modeled spatial data, we present a geographic information system (GIS) representing environmental features important for evaluating vineyard site suitability for the production of wine grapes. Elevation, slope, insolation, heat accumulation, growing season length, extreme minimum temperature and the soil parameters of drainage, available water-holding capacity (AWC), depth to restrictive layer, and pH combine to represent composite topographic, edaphic, and overall production suitability. Comparing modeled site suitability predictions with existing vineyards, we found modeled data on site properties aligned with vineyard manager perceptions of production quality in established vineyards. Although remote spatial evaluation will never replace physical site examination for addressing specific site conditions, it allows an efficient, spatially extensive, initial assessment of sites that can direct attention to potentially problematic or distinguishing environmental characteristics.

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Michael J. Costello

Two California native perennial grasses, nodding needlegrass [Nassella cernua (Stebbins & R.M. Love) Barkworth] and California barley [Hordeum brachyantherum Nevski ssp. californicum (Covas & Stebbins) Bothmer, N. Jacobsen & Seberg], were compared with a conventional grass cover crop, ‘Blando’ brome (Bromus hordeaceus L.), as well as resident (weedy) vegetation and a clean cultivated control for effects on growth and yield of cultivated grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Barbera). Statistical analyses did not reveal yield differences between treatments with floor vegetation (the native grasses, ‘Blando’ brome, and resident vegetation) and clean cultivation, the cover crop treatments (the native grasses and ‘Blando brome’) and clean cultivation, nor the native grass treatments versus treatments with non-native floor vegetation (‘Blando’ brome and resident vegetation). However, there was a significant difference between the two native grasses with the average yield of nodding needlegrass 26.2% higher than that of California barley. Treatments did not differ in °Brix, berry weight, or pruning weight. At the end of the study, vine trunk diameter was 7.1% higher under the cover crop treatments than resident vegetation. Given these results, in vineyards where a neutral effect on growth or yield is desired, nodding needlegrass would be suitable as a permanent cover crop, whereas California barley would not.

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Ammon Lichter, Yohanan Zutahy, Tatiána Kaplunov and Susan Lurie

Two main methods are in use for packing table grapes (Vitis vinifera) for refrigerated storage and transport. One is to pack the grapes with a sulfur dioxide (SO2) generator pad inside a box with a perforated plastic liner and then to cool them. The other is to place the SO2 pad on the grapes, cool the pallet, and wrap it with low-density polyethylene film, leaving the bottom of the pallet open. These two methods were compared for their efficiency in maintaining grape quality and preventing decay for periods ranging from 33 to 117 days. The experiments included ‘Redglobe’ and ‘Zainy’ grapes packaged in plastic boxes and ‘Thompson Seedless’ grapes packaged in cardboard boxes. The quality of the grapes in the trials with plastic boxes was either similar in both packaging methods or better in the wrapped pallet than the liner method. The pedicels, and sometimes the rachis, showed more desiccation in the liners than in the wrapped pallets. Prevention of decay was also better with the wrapped pallets than for storage in liners. However, in the experiment with cardboard boxes, the externally wrapped boxes contained lower levels of SO2, probably because of absorption of SO2 by the cardboard, and the grapes developed more decay and rachis desiccation than in liners inside the cardboard boxes. The method of wrapping grapes after cooling them can have significant advantages over the liner method because of the faster cooling of the grapes and the use of less plastic-based, nonrecyclable materials.

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Craig A. Ledbetter

‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to midseason, white seedless table grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. The significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent

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Carolina Uquillas, Eduardo Torres, Antonio Ibacache and Bruno G. Defilippi

‘Iniagrape-one’ ( Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis vinifera L.) is a new and distinct midseason-ripening, blue–black table grape cultivar for export markets that stores well for up to three months under the proper conditions. This cultivar presents

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Michael J. Costello and W. Keith Patterson

grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) water status on water consumption, vegetative growth and grape quality: An irrigation scheduling application to achieve regulated deficit irrigation Agr. Water Mgt. 97 956 964 Castellarin, S.D. Matthews, M.A. Di Gaspero, G

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Matthew W. Fidelibus

Growers in California’s San Joaquin Valley produced >25% of the world’s raisins in 2012, with a farm-gate value of >$590 million, making the United States the leading global producer of raisins. California’s traditional raisin-making method is a laborious process in which clusters of grapes (Vitis vinifera) are harvested by hand onto paper trays, which are left in the vineyard to dry. The drying fruit may need to be turned or rolled, tasks requiring manual labor, and the trays of dried raisins are also picked up by hand. Most California raisins continue to be made in this way, but in recent years, the declining availability and increasing cost of labor has prompted many growers to implement one of two mechanized production systems, “continuous tray” (CT) or “dry-on-vine” (DOV). In CT systems, machines are used to pick the berries, lay them onto a tray, and pick up the dried raisins. The CT system could be considered a short-term strategy: it is compatible with existing conventional ‘Thompson Seedless’ raisin vineyards and has been widely adopted. The DOV system could be considered a medium-term strategy: it is best suited for vineyards specifically designed for DOV, with early ripening grapevine cultivars on expansive trellis systems, which ensures timely drying, and capitalizes on the fact that sunlit row middles are not needed for fruit drying. Grapevine breeding programs are currently working toward the development of raisin grape cultivars with fruitful basal nodes, with fruit that dry naturally upon ripening. This is a long-term strategy to further reduce labor needs by enabling mechanical pruning in winter and eliminating the need for cane severance in the summer.

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Craig A. Ledbetter

‘Solbrio’ is an early midseason black-skinned seedless table grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for production where V. vinifera can be grown. The significant characteristics of ‘Solbrio’ are its consistent production of large crunchy textured