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Eugene J. Hogue, John A. Cline, Gerry Neilsen and Denise Neilsen

, Summerland, British Columbia (long. 49°33′59″ N, lat. 119°38′12″ W) in 1998 using ‘Gala’ (cv. Imperial) apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) on M.9 rootstock growing in a Skaha gravelly sandy loam, an Orthic Brown soil commonly planted to tree fruits and

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Li Ma, Chang Wei Hou, Xin Zhong Zhang, Hong Li Li, De Guo Han, Yi Wang and Zhen Hai Han

apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) trees in vitro: Multiple cytokinin tolerance expressed among three strains of ‘McIntosh’ that differ in their growth habit under field conditions Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 54 71 76 Shao, K.J. Li, D.K. Zhang, Z

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Eric Young and S.M. Blankenship

Three percent oxygen significantly delayed and reduced budbreak of fully chilled apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees in a greenhouse. When ambient oxygen levels were restored, budbreak occurred normally. Apple trees stored under 3% ± 1% oxygen at 6C for 35 weeks had no detectable bud development in storage. Budbreak and subsequent shoot growth were normal after the trees had been removed from storage.

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Cyrus Samimy and James N. Cummins

Isozymes of six enzyme systems extracted from 13 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) rootstocks were separated electrophoretically on a horizontal starch gel. Each rootstock was clearly distinguished by its unique isozyme banding patterns. All the rootstocks were distinguishable using only two of the enzyme systems, phosphoglucomutase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, both of which exhibited considerable isozyme polymorphism.

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Franklin R. Hall, Roger A. Downer, Jane A. Cooper, Timothy A. Ebert and David C. Ferree

Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) leaves were sprayed to runoff using a selection of pesticides, and subsequent spray retention was evaluated by weight. Timing, cultivar, leaf surface, and leaf type significantly influenced spray retention. Spray retention correlated significantly and positively with leaf hair density. The importance of these differences is considered in relation to the possible efficiency of the pesticide application process in apple orchards.

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Shogo Matsumoto, Kentaro Kitahara, Sadao Komori and Junichi Soejima

S-allele genotypes of nine apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars were identified using S-allele–specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–restriction fragmentlength polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. A new S-allele, Sg, was proposed to be present in `American Summer Pearmain', `Indo', `Kitanosachi', and `Meku 10'. This allele is very similar to Sf at the nucleotide sequence (92%) and deduced amino acid sequence (94%) levels.

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Steven McArtney, Dave Ferree, John Schmid, J.D. Obermiller and A. Green

A series of experiments were undertaken to compare the effects of individual and combined applications of GA4+7 and prohexadione-Ca (P-Ca) on scarf skin and fruit quality parameters on red strains of `Rome Beauty' and `Gala' apples. Three applications of GA4+7 at 10-day intervals beginning at petal fall (PF) significantly reduced scarf skin severity in all experiments. A single application of P-Ca at PF had no effect on scarf skin in one experiment but reduced scarf skin severity in two further experiments. Combining P-Ca with the first of three GA4+7 sprays as a tank mix reduced the severity of scarf skin more effectively than either material alone in two of three experiments at P < 0.05 and in all three experiments at P < 0.10. Combining P-Ca with the first application of GA4+7 as a tank mix generally reduced scarf skin as effectively as applying P-Ca and the first GA4+7 spray two days apart, although in one experiment, greater scarf skin control was achieved when P-Ca was applied 2 days after the first GA4+7 spray. A single application of P-Ca at PF consistently reduced, and three applications of GA4+7 consistently increased, mean fruit weight at harvest compared with the control. The economic benefits as a result of reducing scarf skin severity with P-Ca and GA4+7 sprays will need to be balanced against the negative effect of P-Ca on mean fruit weight. There is no antagonism between early season P-Ca and GA4+7 sprays for scarf skin control, and P-Ca may increase the efficacy of GA4+7 sprays for scarf skin control in apple.

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester, Bahar Fallahi and Shahla Mahdavi

The increasing trend in the world population and decreasing trend in the available agricultural land and water mandate a more efficient use of orchard land. Using new apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard designs with more efficient rootstocks

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Giverson Mupambi, Stefano Musacchi, Sara Serra, Lee A. Kalcsits, Desmond R. Layne and Tory Schmidt

. Materials and Methods Study site, plant material, and treatments Experiments were conducted on potted ‘Honeycrisp’/‘M-9-T337’ apple trees ( Malus domestica Borkh.) at Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center in Wenatchee, WA (lat

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Ashley A. Thompson and Gregory M. Peck

The profitability of high-density apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) orchards depends on rapidly establishing tree biomass and then obtaining high fruit yields as soon as possible after planting. Apple growers will often apply mineral nitrogen (N