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Nobuko Sugimoto, A. Daniel Jones and Randolph Beaudry

mutant screening reveals novel associations between diverse phenotypes in arabidopsis Plant Physiol. 146 1482 1500 Magné, C. Bonenfant-Magné, M. Audran, J.-C. 1997 Nitrogenous Indicators of postharvest ripening and senescence in apple fruit ( Malus

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Hong Zhu, Rongcai Yuan, Duane W. Greene and Eric P. Beers

in apple fruitlet abscission ( Malus domestica L. Borkh) J. Expt. Bot. 56 2995 3005 Fan, X.T. Blankenship, S.M. Mattheis, J.P. 1999 1-Methylcyclopropene inhibits apple ripening J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci

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Carol A. Miles and Jaqueline King

. Kaiser, C. 2011 Ethephon as a blossom and fruitlet thinner affects crop load, fruit weight, fruit quality, and return bloom of ‘Summerred’ apple ( Malus ×domestica ) Borkh HortScience 46 432 438 Merwin, I.A. Valois, S. Padilla-Zakour, O. 2008 Cider apples

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Heidi Hargarten, Sumyya Waliullah, Lee Kalcsits and Loren A. Honaas

refers to the genome of the commercially produced ‘Golden Delicious’ apple [ Velasco et al., 2010 ; specifically: Malus × domestica Whole Genome v1.0.p - Assembly and Annotation at the Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) ( Jung et al., 2014 )]. Apple V2

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Renae E. Moran, Bryan J. Peterson, Gennaro Fazio and John Cline

fruit crops Can. J. Plant Sci. 77 399 420 Pramsohler, M. Hacker, J. Neuner, G. 2012 Freezing pattern and frost killing temperature of apple ( Malus domestica ) wood under controlled conditions and in nature Tree Physiol. 32 819 828 Quamme, H.A. 1976

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Kenji Sakurai, Susan K. Brown and Norman Weeden

The S-alleles of 55 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars and selections were determined using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification system for 11 different S-alleles (S2, S3, S4, S5, S7, S9, S24, S26, S27, Sd, Sf). Four cultivars had S-alleles different than those predicted by their parentage. Three commercial cultivars of unknown pedigrees had S-genotypes that suggested `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious' were the parents. S-genotyping results supported controlled pollination test results. The genotypes of the five triploid cultivars examined were consistent with the unreduced gamete being contributed by the female parent. Although a large number of S-genotypes is available in apple, artificial selection or repeated use of the same cultivars as parents appears to have significantly restricted the number of compatibility groups associated with commercial clones. In controlled reciprocal crosses between two cultivars of known S-genotypes, the segregation of S-genotypes and S-alleles was 1:1:1:1, the ratio expected for random pairing of alleles.

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Hiroshi Iwanami, Makoto Ishiguro, Nobuhiro Kotoda, Sae Takahashi and Junichi Soejima

The firmness of the flesh in 27 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars and selections (genotypes) was measured as an indicator of storage potential at 20 days after harvest under 20 ± 2 °C, 80% ± 5%relative humidity storage conditions. Softening ranged from 9% to 58% of initial values among genotypes after 20 days of storage. In some genotypes, softening was not continuous, a minimum firmness being reached before day 20. After a period of rapid softening, firmness declined to at least 20% of that at harvest. For each genotype, linear regression analysis of firmness changes from harvest until when firmness decreased by 20% was carried out. In genotypes in which firmness did not drop >20% within 20 days of storage, the entire dates to 20 days were used for analysis. The homogeneity of the regression residual variances and their normal distribution was not rejected at P = 0.05, and the linear regression analysis was assumed to be applicable to the change in firmness for each genotype. Results of the regression analysis showed that the regression was significant for all genotypes except one. Therefore, storage potential could be evaluated by comparing the regression coefficient of each genotype.

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Richard H. Zimmerman

Micropropagated trees of `Redspur Delicious' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.), planted as small, actively growing trees in May 1982, lacked uniformity in tree size, appearance, and flowering by the spring of 1986. Only four of the 18 trees had a typical spur-type growth habit; these four trees had 80% more spurs per meter of shoot, 8 to 10 times as many flowers the first year of flowering and 9.5-fold higher early fruit yields, but were 40% smaller after 14 years in the orchard and had 25% less cumulative fruit yield than the nonspur types. Shoots from the spur-type trees were recultured in 1988 and the resulting trees planted in an orchard in 1990. These latter trees were uniform in appearance and all had typical spur-type growth, with about 30% more spurs per meter of shoot growth than the spur-type trees from which they were propagated. Micropropagating spur-type apples from previously micropropagated trees that have maintained clonal fidelity may overcome the potential problem of clonal variation in orchard planted micropropagated trees.

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Lailiang Cheng and Richard Raba

, G.H. Hogue, E.J. 1997 Sources of N for leaf growth in a high-density apple ( Malus domestica ) orchard irrigated with ammonium nitrate solution Tree Physiol. 17 733 739 Neilsen, D. Millard, P

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Ignasi Iglesias and Simó Alegre

.J. 1990 Fruit color responses of ‘Granny Smith’ apple to variable light environments N.Z.J. Crop Hort. Sci. 18 205 214 Iglesias, I. 1996 Influencia del material vegetal y del riego por aspersión en la cloración de variedades rojas de manzana ( Malus