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This study identified the diversity and distribution of tree species and which vegetable crops are grown beneath them, uses of different plants, to identify the problem faced by the farmer, and to recommend a suitable small scale mixed production system. The study was conducted in three sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. Respondents for the survey were selected based on five different farm categories, i.e., tenant, marginal, small, medium, and large farm. The most common species in the study area was jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, 26.3) and mango (Mangifera indica, 22.5) followed by mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni, 10.3), coconut (Cocos nucifera, 10.0), while low prevalence species was gora neem (Melia azadirch, 0.18) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica, 0.19). A total number of 43 plant species were identified in the homestead of the study area of which 28 were horticultural, and 15 were timber and fuelwood producing species. Total income was found to increase with increase of farm size. A large number of vegetables (32 species) are cultivated in the study area, largely for local consumption. The study showed that stem amaranthus, indian spinach, aroids, sweet gourd, chili, turmeric, eggplant, and radish were grown under shade of jackfruit, mango, date palm, litchi, mahogany, and drumstick trees. Country bean, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, and cowpea were found to grow as creeper on jackfruit, mango, litchi, mahogany, and drumstick trees. Farmers earned cash income by selling trees and vegetables produced in the homestead. Among different tree species, jackfruit was identified as an important cash generating crop in the study area. Scopes for improvement of tree management practices were prevalent in the study area.

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Summer cover crops can improve soil fertility by adding organic matter, supplying nutrients through mineralization, reducing nutrient leaching, and improving soil water and nutrient holding capacity. Other benefits include weed suppression and reduction of soil parasitic nematodes. A series of field experiments have been conducted at the UF IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center in Homestead, Florida to evaluate several summer cover crops for use in vegetable production in South Florida followed by field demonstrations conducted in the growers' fields. Best performing cover crops were legumes: velvet bean (Macuna deeringiana) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. `Tropic Sun') providing 13 and 11 Mt of dry matter/ha, respectively. Sunn hemp supplied 330 kg N/ha followed by velvet been with 310 kg N/ha. Traditional summer cover crop sorghum-Sudan produced 4 Mt of dry matter/ha and retained only 36 kg N/ha. In addition Sunn hemp significantly reduced soil parasitic nematodes for successive crops. Limitations in use of Sunn hemp by more vegetable growers in South Florida include cost and availability of seeds.

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The utility of alumina-buffered phosphorus (Al-P) fertilizers for supplying phosphorus (P) to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in soils with low-P availability was evaluated. Plants were grown at low-P fertility (about 100 kg·ha–1, low-P control; LPC), with conventional P fertilization (205-300 kg·ha–1 annually, fertilizer control; FC), or with one of two Al-P sources (Martenswerke or Alcoa) in 2001–03. The two Al-P fertilizers were applied in 2001; no additional material was applied in 2002-03. Plants grown with Martenswerke Al-P had similar shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root length, leaf P concentration, and fruit yield compared with plants grown with conventional P fertilizer in both 2002 and 2003 seasons. Bell pepper grown with Alcoa Al-P had similar shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root length, leaf P concentration, and fruit yield compared with plants grown without P fertilizer in both seasons. Alcoa Al-P continuously released bioavailable P for 2 years between 2001 and 2002, while Martenswerke Al-P continuously released bioavailable P at least 3 years between 2001 and 2003. These results indicate that some formulations of Al-P can serve as long-term P sources for field vegetable production.

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Abstract

Double-cropping systems were compared to the same vegetable monocropped. Snap beans [Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) ‘Bush Blue Lake’], sweet corn [Zea mays (L.) ‘Sundance’], cauliflower [Brassica oleracea (L.), Botrytis group, ‘Snow Crown’], summer squash [Cucurbita pepo (L.) ‘Zucchini Elite’], and broccoli [Brassica oleracea (L.), Italica group, ‘Green Comet’] were used. The double-crop systems used were spring snap bean and fall cauliflower, summer squash and fall broccoli, and spring sweet corn and fall snap beans. The monocrop system was used as a control for the double-crop systems. The greatest net returns were: 1) squash monocropped or squash/broccoli double-cropped, 2) squash double-cropped, 3) cauliflower or cauliflower/snap bean double-cropped, and 4) broccoli or cauliflower or snap beans monocropped. Fall snap beans provided the least economic return. The double-cropping system allows an option of crop production with a potential increase in yield and economic returns using half the amount of land per year required for either crop grown in monoculture. In addition, these systems reduce the risk of economic failure during a year of low-market demand for either crop grown alone.

Open Access

coordinate, soil properties, and weather conditions, and in two distinct seasons, wet-cool and hot-dry seasons, and to characterize selection sites for different target amaranth production environments. The importance of season on amaranth vegetable yield was

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AVRDC–The World Vegetable Center was established in 1971 as a not-for-profit international agricultural research institute whose mission is to reduce malnutrition and poverty among the poor through vegetable research and development. Over the past 30 years, AVRDC has developed a vast array of international public goods. The Center plays an essential role in bringing international and interdisciplinary teams together to develop technologies, empower farmers, and address major vegetable-related issues in the developing world. In its unique role, AVRDC functions as a catalyst to 1) build international and interdisciplinary coalitions that engage in vegetable and nutrition issues; 2) generate and disseminate improved germplasm and technologies that address economic and nutritional needs of the poor; 3) collect, characterize, and conserve vegetable germplasm resources for worldwide use; and 4) provide globally accessible, user-friendly, science-based, appropriate technology. In enhancing and promoting vegetable production and consumption in developing world, AVRDC's research programs contribute to increased productivity of the vegetable sector, equity in economic development in favor of rural and urban poor, healthy and more diversified diets for low-income families, environmentally friendly and safe production of vegetables, and improved sustainability of cropping systems. Recent achievements at AVRDC that greatly impact tropical horticulture in the developing world include virus-resistant tomatoes raising farmers income, hybrid sweet pepper breaking the yield barrier in the tropics, flood-resistant chili peppers opening new market opportunities, broccoli varieties for monsoon season, pesticide-free eggplant and leafy vegetable production systems and fertilizer systems that protect the environment. Beyond vegetable crops, AVRDC is playing an important role in expanding and promoting research and development efforts for high value horticultural crops, including fruit, ornamentals, and medicinal plants through its new Global Horticulture Initiative. AVRDC believes that horticulture crop production provides jobs and is an engine for economic growth. The important role AVRDC–The World Vegetable Center plays in developing and promoting tropical horticultural crops is discussed in this paper.

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55 ORAL SESSION 9 (Abstr. 451-456) Vegetable Crops: Crop Production

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Abstract

Extension educational materials were designed to communicate vegetable production information to citizens with varying educational and agricultural skills. Slide/tape sets written at 4th to 6th grade levels and extension circulars at 6th to 8th grade levels were evaluated by North Florida citizens. Recall increased 20 to 50% following presentation of a slide/tape set or reading of the revised production guide. These educational materials were used by county extension agents to improve production skills of vegetable growers.

Open Access

Abstract

A 2-year study involving 15 garden vegetables and 5 different-sized gardens was conducted to assess land, labor, and production efficiency. As garden size increased, total production increased, but yield per unit area decreased. Relative labor inputs varied with garden size, but were greatest for harvesting (38%) followed by planting (23%), miscellaneous (22%), and weeding (17%). The highest production in relationship to labor and land use was obtained with beets, carrots, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, and summer squash. The poorest yielding crops were pole and bush beans, sweet corn, peas, peppers, and radishes. Total vegetable yield for the 2-year study averaged 6.2 kg/m2.

Open Access

The evolution of plastic uses (excluding glazing) in the production of greenhouse vegetables is presented. Plastics are used in almost every aspect of crop production, including providing a barrier to the soil, lining crop production troughs, holding soil and soilless media, and providing a nutrient film channel. Irrigation systems have become very elaborate, with various plastic products used to transport water and nutrients and to provide a means of emitting nutrient solution to the crop. The greenhouse environment is managed from several plastic components, including air distribution tubes, shade materials, and energy curtains. Plastics are now common in greenhouse vegetable crop training, insect monitoring, postharvest handling, storage, and marketing.

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